A wide variety of different monomer compositions of PHA has been described, as well as their future prospects for applications where high biodegradability or biocompatibility is required. PHA can be produced from renewable raw materials and are degraded naturally by microorganisms that enable carbon dioxide and organic compound recycling in the ecosystem, providing a buffer to climate change.Although more than 300 different microorganisms synthesize PHA(Steinbüchel, A et al,1995, Kim et al,2001, Lenz et al,2005, Hazer et al ,2007), only a few, such as Cupriavidus necator (formerly known as Ralstonia eutropha or Alcaligenes eutrophus), Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas oleovorans, Paracoccus denitrificans, Protomonas extorquens, and recombinant E. coli, are able to produce sufficient PHA for large-scale production. The objective of this study was to isolate and identification PHA-producing bacteria in different soils collected from Allahabad and characterization for Plant growth promoting traits for the enhancement of Rice seed germination under in Vitro
Microbes in wetlands are major contributors to the production of methane which is a greenhouse gas. Scientists have found that when acid rain is deposited on these wetlands that the production of methane was considerably reduced because the bacteria eating the sulfur suppressed the microbes that were emitting the methane and thus less methane being produced (Gauci & Chapman 2006:3506). The fact is that acid rain is contributing to the destruction of our environment and as we have seen with the distribution of acid rain across the world it is everybody’s problem and not just the industrialized countries that produce the pollution. The negative effects of acid rain can be seen all around us in the dying forests and dams to the degradation of historical monument. Let us hope that governments can agree on an action plan to reduce and ultimately stop acid rain before it is too
Introduction Pollution has been around since Ancient Rome and is described as the contamination of our natural environment that is caused by chemicals and gas (Stromberg). Because of pollution in the air, more damaging consequences such as the formation of acid rain are triggered. The largest contributors to pollution are humans through industrial factories that expel foreign chemicals into the atmosphere and cause the formation of acid rain. This topic was chosen to explore the effect of man-made acid rain as a result of pollution in the air on plants, human health, and much more. The effect of pH on oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production is worthy of investigation because human-caused acid rain is at large at many countries and may give clarity to other events that acid rain triggers.
Ayoko et al. (2007) observed that usually communities that depend on untreated groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes are communities that lack adequate infrastructures to monitor water quality regularly and implement control strategies due to poverty. Chenini I and Khemiri S. (2009) noticed that the chemical composition of groundwater is controlled by many factors that include the composition of precipitation, mineralogy of the aquifers, climate, and topography. They concluded that the effect of the combination of these factors can create diverse water types that change in composition spatially and temporally. It is important to mention here that the interaction between groundwater and the host rock is affected by some physical parameters such as temperature, pH, etc.
This occurs because excess nutrients can fuel the growth of algae blooms that block sunlight from reaching underwater grasses and, during decomposition, rob the water of oxygen that plants and animals need to survive. Certain species of algae that are common in bodies of water plagued by eutrophication can also contaminate shellfish. When consumed by humans, these diseased aquatic invertebrate cause paralytic shellfish poisoning: a potentially fatal disease. Unfortunately, though there are many drawbacks and negative effects on the water quality in the Bay, no real benefits are found in the water when agricultural pollution is present. The most destructive components of agricultural pollution are livestock manure, poultry litter, and chemical fertilizers.
Acid rain results from rain falling through polluted air that contains many poisonous gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxide of nitrogen (NOX) etc. that react with rainwater to form acids. It possibly releases harmful substances when reaching the ground such as heavy metals that could washed into water bodies (Hudda, S.). Industrial wastes released into water are mixtures of chemicals that are difficult to clean up (Hudda, S.). Agricultural pollution is considered the major pollution of water (Mihov).
al, (1999) fresh waters conclude that there are strong relationships between the degree of agricultural development of catchments, lowered water quality, and reduced biodiversity of stream fauna. Turbidity will results of the scattering of light in water by organic and inorganic particles, reduced abundance of zooplankton, macro invertebrates, and Arctic grayling (Thymallusarcticus) in naturally
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that lack functional groups and thus makes it apolar. They are chemically less reactive at room temperature (Oliveira I.N.,2013) and insoluble in water. In this study petroleum derivatives are taken into consideration as hydrocarbon source. Various community play vital role in degradation of hydrocarbon. Petroleum is a heterogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons including aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic in varying concentration depending upon the origin and nature.
There is a decline in the invertebrate population over a few kilometres which is an indicator of the impacts of the urban settlements. Only the stronger and toughest invertebrates live towards the lower regions of the river due to the magnitude of the pollution especially in the form of the organic matter. There is a good amount of fish in the area as the fish which are indigenous to the river are resistant to the pollution as it is a common occurrence. Sewers discharge their contents into the river which pollutes the river. This is due to urbanisation and a high population density.
Lakes & Streams: Acid rain either directly falls into streams, lakes and marshes, or it flows into these after falling on forests, fields, buildings or roads. If the body of water cannot naturally neutralise the acid, which occurs due to bases naturally found in the soil of the body of water, this acid will release aluminium from the soil into the lake. This aluminium is toxic to many aquatic organisms and disturbs aquatic life as well as biodiversity in this body of water. For example, fish eggs cannot hatch if the pH value of the body of water is 5 or lower. Forests: When acid rain falls onto the forest floor, it is absorbed by the soil.