The result depicts that % inhibition is concentration dependent and it increased with increase in concentration. 100% acha cracker had the least inhibitory activity which increases with increase in substitution with pigeon pea flour. This result agrees with previous reports which ascertained that plant phytochemicals (Zhang and Kashket,1998; Nickavar and Yousefian, 2009) and underutilized legumes (Ademiluyi and Oboh, 2012) inhibited salivary and pancreatic α-amylase activity. The high percentage of α-amylase inhibition may help slow down the absorption of carbohydrates after food intake. IC50 value was extrapolated from the curve and it represents the concentration of extract required to inhibit 50% of PPA (Porcine Pancreatic Alpha amylase) activity.
Compared with control, addition of HP into the basal diet resulted in a decrease of Methane production (P < 0.05). These findings are consistent with prior results of different types of herbal plant supplementation to diets that showed addition of herbal plant and its component into the basal diet resulted in a decrease of Methane production (P < 0.05). Decreasing ruminal methane output could improve animal efficiency due to reduced losses of feed energy. The reduction in methane may be due to the inhibition of fiber degradation and decline in methanogenic archaea. The trace compounds in the herbal plant may inhibition of methanogenic archaea bacteria and or microbial fermentation, subsequently decreasing methanogenesis.
But expansion in thickness and weight was slightly increased with increasing level of beetroot powder. The Nutritional composition of biscuits incorporated with beetroot powder were analyzed and presented in table 4 . The data indicates that the protein content was increased from 6.7 to 7.83 (g/100g) as the level of BRP increased from 0 to 15 per cent .The value of fiber was increased from 0.1 to 2.10 (g/100g) by increasing the amount of BRP gradually from 0 to 15 per cent. The value of calcium , Iron, , Phosphorus and magnesium (mg/100g) was increased form 1.7 to 6.21, 0.0 to 1.31, 26.0 to 57.10 and 0.25 to 13.21 as the amount of BRP was increased from 0 to 15 per cent. The control biscuits having zero nutritive value of folate , vitamin c , betanin and choline but while increasing the amount of BRP from 0 to 5.21 , 0.0 to 4.73, and 0.0 to 0.81 .
In our work, Pseudomonas spp. strains 24, 30 and 109 produced high levels of soluble phosphate (> 1,000 μg.mL-1) (Table 2) and significantly increased plant growth (Table 2). Strain 24 (P. plecoglossicida) had significantly increased root length whereas strain 30 (Pseudomonas sp.) increased shoot dry weight and strain 109 displayed an increase in shoot and root dry weight (Table 3). However, strain 103 (P. putida) which produced only 83 μg.mL-1 of soluble phosphate, was the most plant growth-stimulating bacterium in NSS (Table
However, the lower lignin content and kappa number obtained by the polysulfide pulping is contentious one. Dillen, Noreus, 1967 noticed the lower lignin content at same cooking conditions while Copur,2007, Jameel et al., 1995 and Hakanen Teder, 1997 found contradictory results to Dillen Noreus, 1967, and they found higher kappa number or lignin content in their respective studies. Furthermore, they attributed the higher lignin amount to lower OH concentration during polysulfide pulping. As OH ions are consumed by the polysulfide during polysulfide degradation reaction, polysulfide rearrangement or speciation reactions and oxidation of
The highest significant Pod yield per plant (81.13 g), Pod yield per plot (3.73 kg) and total pod yield (9.33 t ha-1) was obtained with 75 kg P ha-1 which was followed by P @ 50kg ha-1 treated. The lowest pod yield (6.97 t ha-1) was obtained from P @ 25 kg ha-1 treatment. It is revealed that pod yield increased with increasing rate of phosphorus. Increasing level of Phosphorus increase the pod yield of French bean was reported by Roy and Parthasarathy (1999). Result presented that among the treatments, application of 75 kg P ha-1 recorded significantly lower content of crude fibre (1.27%) and high content of protein (2.78%).
Intrathecal morphine at 0.3 nmol group was significantly higher numbers of scratches compared with that in the saline group (127.5 ± 23.2 : P ＝ 0.001 ; F3, 20 = 9.2) (Fig 1A). The peak of scratching behavior was at 10–20 min in the morphine 0.3 nmol groups and at 0–10 min in the morphine 1.0 nmol group, and the number of scratches decreased after these times in all the groups (Fig 1B). Scratching behavior in intrathecal SB366791 0.1 nmol group was not significantly different from that in vehicle group (P > 0.99). Intrathecal morphine at 0.3 nmol group significantly increased scratching compared with that in the saline group (P < 0.001). On the contrary, the morphine 0.3 nmol + SB366791 0.01, 0.03, or 0.1 nmol groups did not increase scratching compared with vehicle group (P = 0.17, P = 0.83, P = 0.99, respectively; F6, 35 = 11.1).
Results were quite interesting as the curd rice shelf was increased to 7 days at 37°C and 12 days at 4 to 6°C temperature. The curd rice acidity and water activity was 0.54 % and 0.994 respectively. The ginger( natural preservative) added to the curd rice has been considered as a hurdle for the increased shelf life (Balasubramanyam et al., 2004).Milk based product named Dudhchurpi is generally made in Himalaya region from cow milk or yak. Surprisingly, it is stable for several months without refrigeration. The important characteristic of dudhchurpi is its usage as energy tablets due to the elasticity of its texture.
At first, instant rice had a moisture content range of 64.79 to 70.83 (%db.) During first period of drying, the moisture content decreases in a linear manner, which is called a constant drying rate. Then the moisture content reduced slowly which called a falling rate. According to Thai rice standard, instant rice should have a moisture content less than 14 (%wb.) or 16 (%db.)
Sugar-containing food and drink can cause the pH levels to drop to a level low enough to cause demineralization of enamel. (Kidd, 2005) Plaque pH levels have been shown to be significantly higher when gum is chewed after eating. (Frohlich et al). Plaque levels are also decreased when gum is chewed after meals, especially with xylitol-sweetened chewing gum (Soderling E, et. Al., 1989).