One critic of the model is in respect to this tenet because it disregards the influence of culture in the interpretation of messages. The model stands contrary to the uses and gratification model since it proposes that people are passive receivers of messages sent over media so they have no power to choose the preferred media. The model gives the power of choice to the media. The media chooses the message that they would like to transfer to people and people receive the message exactly as
One of the most influential factor is definitely the media. First of all, we need to understand what cultivation means. Cultivation is how media in general affects the individual, in their view of their social reality. By only showing certain points of view, television today has enough power to affect the public discourse and therefore the individuals train of thoughts (Shanahan and Morgan 1999, p.4). This may cause certain misconceptions about different aspects of life, than one’s own aspects, thus altering their opinions but that is not all it causes.
According to some psychologists, women are more likely than men prefer to see than to hear, than to listen and have more trust in the visual (non-verbal) information (Carnes, 2015). Unlike men, who in society are trying to demonstrate their masculinity and to achieve high status, women are more concerned about harmony in society and support of others. Being empathetic and sensual to others lay down in women’s nature and, therefore these instincts are manifested in interpersonal communication. It is believed that women more frequently use non-verbal communication because they much easier understand the body language and nonverbal cues. During the conversation women usually tend to have more eye contact, comparing with men (Carnes, 2015).
The societal image of a woman is of a well-dressed being with great poise and posture and with the finest set of manners. Men are expected to be physically strong, emotionally stronger too, and may or may not have the gentlemen qualities. While research studies have shown that women will probably look for restorative help than men. The evidences set forward to show this include women are more sick with non-fatal diseases. Conditions like depression are more observed in women.
The styles that men and women use to communicate have been described as “debate vs. relate” , “report vs. rapport”, or competitive vs. co-operative”. Men often seek straightforward solutions to problems and useful advice whereas women tend to try and establish intimacy
In the present case of 21st century the world drives around media. It plays the most essential role in building up individual intellect regarding issues as well as thrusting your own frame of mind onto others. Media is considered as a source of acknowledgement in the society. It spreads various social and political norms all across the nations. Individuals build there ethnic values norms and mind frames towards the society based on the socialization that they hinder from the mass communication media.
Live television builds an audience by guaranteeing direct access to current affairs and providing accurate information. Television aims to be everywhere, it always has something to say, and serves to become the “electronic air we breathe” (Telotte 180). However, an audience’s underlying desire to watch television provides an escape into an endless void. Television foregrounds its capacity for liveness with its ability to transmit picture to sound instantaneously; however, it varies to a degree of immediacy, intimacy, and authenticity, all of which is built upon an ideological framework. Therefore, television relies on the illusion of liveness to maintain audience viewership; it emerges from a process of reification, and lastly these programs follow a distinct narrative format.
Gerbner (1998:198) defined cultivation as “the independent contributions media viewing makes to an individual’s conceptions of social reality.” This theory explains how an individual’s perception of social reality can be changed if they perceive the real world according to what they viewed in the media, or especially on television (Holstrom, 2004:197). Morgan and Shanahan (2010: 337) described the media as indoctrinating a woman’s opinion of her body image over time through repetitive and frequent viewing. Levine and Smolak (1996:250) stated that the continual repetition of certain values, as well as the exclusion of certain types of people, actions and stories powerfully influences and adapt viewer’s conceptions of social reality. Tiggemann
The primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend 'living ' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television. Signorelli points out that under this umbrella, perceptions of the world are heavily influenced by the images and ideological messages transmitted through popular television media (2003). Cultivation theory suggests that exposure to television, over time, subtly 'cultivates ' viewers ' perceptions of reality. Television is a medium of the socialization of most people into standardized roles and behaviors. Its function is in a word, enculturation.
(2002, p.47) put it: The most general hypothesis of cultivation analysis is that those who spend more time "living" in the world of television are more likely to see the "real world" in terms of the images, values, portrayals, and ideologies that emerge through the lens of television. In essence, Cultivation theory simply explains how the perceptions of social reality for the individuals are influenced by the extensive amount of television viewing over a prolong duration of time. Although cultivation theory is applicable to all aspects of television content but thus far, the majority study was focused on the implications of the impact of consumption of television violence. In the research, the viewers were classified into three categories which were the light, moderate and heavy. However,