Flower Lab Report

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Lab Report 4
Student No. : 15151131
Introduction
This experiment is to examine the structure of a flower and the transport of water. This experiment should help us to understand why flowers are shaped the way they are, why they have external structures and bright colours. The processes by which water is transported against the force of gravity. Pollen will be extracted from the anther and from the cone structure of pine and spruce trees and examined under different lenses of the microscope. A discussion will be included in this report to describe in more detail how water is transported, the position of the sexual organs on the flower and the reason for pollen in plants. Also, a results section and conclusion will complete the report.
Method
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Key factors to watch out for were the Carpel (female part of flower) and Stamen (male part of flower). Sexual organs in the flowering plant are easily seen by the naked eye as they are all externa structures. Open flower gently, and take note of structure. Carefully distinguish between make and female organs and separate for closer examination. Using scalpel and particular attention to safety for yourself and others around you, cut away a petal, carpel and stamen section and investigate their structure under a microscope. Begin with a low powered lens, and move up in power for a more detailed view.
Take the anther from the stamen and dissect, releasing pollen. Using care not to damage pollen grains, place pollen on slide for use under microscope. Use similar procedure as previously stated. Due to the pollen being so small, it is better to examine them in a larger group to make them more visible. The flower was placed in a food die prior to experiment to make the different parts more visible and distinguishable.
The final part of the experiment is to examine the water transport system of a plant. Cut a small piece of the stalk of the flowering plant. Carefully and smoothly make an incision down the side of the stalk section. Revealing the internal structure of the stalk. The majority of water enters the plant through the roots. Examine the external section of the root.
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Examples : fibrous roots, the gripping roots of ivy and roots of onion. Upward movement of water through the xylem.
Two processes combine to move water from the roots up to the upper parts of plants: Root pressure and transpiration.
1.) Root pressure: when roots absorb water a pressure is made which helps push water up through xylem vessels. 2.) Transpiration: is the loss of water vapour by evaporation from the surface of the plant.
The COHESION-TENSION MODEL of xylem transport (Dixon and Jolly)
This model depicts how water moves up through a plant against the force of gravity.
Water evaporates from the cells of the leaf by transpiration. These cells become less turgid. (Less swollen)
This causes water to be drawn out from xylem vessels to move into the leaf cells by osmosis.
Water molecules are attracted/ stick to each other (Cohesion) and this cohesive property means that a column of water can move up xylem without breaking.
As transpiration continues it causes a continuous column of water to be pulled up the xylem vessels to replace it- water in the xylem is under tension (stems

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