There are some strains of influenza that escape the vaccination every year. Viruses are highly susceptible to mutations during replication, so these strains likely experience a mutation in either the hemagglutinin or neuraminidase at some point. This mutation alters the shape of these glycoproteins, causing the antibodies in the victim’s immune system to not be able to bind to the virus. This is usually where the seasonal flu virus comes from each year. New strains of influenza mutate all the time, causing all organisms vulnerable to become sick and start the process of developing new antibodies all over again.
http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/Other_g374-Crowd_Of_People_In_City_p52394.html Stress is the #1 health problem in America today. Worry builds up inside a person and in many cases and manifests itself in physical illness. Doctors even now believe that anxiety may be the cause of many diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and gastrointestinal problems as well. Stress is costing America billions in medical bills, OTC drugs, and sessions with therapists in an attempt to combat the effects of anxiety caused by stress. But, what if there was a way to relief stress and its associated anxiety that comes with it.
“According to the Intergovernmental Panel on (IPCC), an increase in global temperature by 1.5 to 2.5 degrees will make 40 to 70 percent species vulnerable to extinction, while a rise of about 3.5.” Next effect is more hurricanes will occur and many people and country affect as well. Hurricane causes damage to public property and government need to spend billions of dollars in damage and people need places to stay and many people may kill. Once a disaster happens many people may die and diseases happen. Diseases are more dangerous because it can spread to other people and they may suffer from it and the disease maybe
Typhoid fever is a very serious disease that you can get from almost anywhere in the world.Parts of the world where sanitation levels and hygiene are poor you will be at a higher risk of getting the typhoid disease. It is mostly common in parts of the world except highly advanced countries like the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan. The places that are highly risked is Asia, Africa, and Latin America, South Asia is highest at risk. About 300 people that travel outside of the United States get typhoid fever. There’s about 22 million cases and 200,000 deaths of typhoid fever that occur worldwide every year.
Introduction Humanity has recurrently been facing pandemics. A pandemic is an epidemic, an outbreak of an infectious disease that spreads worldwide or at least across a large region. Some of the most known events have been the Spanish flu (at the beginning of the 20th century) or the H1N1 pandemics (at the beginning of the 21st century). It can already be noted that pandemics which were more localized in the past have now a world scope and world impact due to the travelling’s international intensity. The most recent pandemics that the world is facing is Ebola, which started in Western Africa, impacts heavily three countries, and leads to a number of countries shutting down their borders to nationals or visitors originating from the impacted
Emerging influenza is a seasonal viral disease caused by influenza A virus (H1N1). It spreads rapidly and costs society a considerable amount in terms of health care expenses, reduction in productivity as well as loss of life. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the outbreak to be a pandemic because of growing worldwide cases . It cost the society a huge amount in terms of morbidity and mortality and monetary cost as well with a typical flu pandemic. The existence of influenza virus among human population in many countries of the world including India has emphasized public health care organizations to take effective preventive measure.
VIROLOGY ASSIGNMENT NAME: VICTORIA MOFOPEFOLUWA THOMAS STUDENT ID: 01161807 TRIMESTER: BASIC SCIENCE 7 DATE: 26TH MARCH 2018 TOPIC: THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE ON THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH POLIO INFECTION AND THE CHALLENGES FACED WITH THE GLOBAL AMBITION OF COMPLETELY ERRADICATING POLIO DISEASE DESPITE THE AVAILABILITY OF AN EFFECTIVE VACCINE. INTRODUCTION Polio which is also known as infantile paralysis or poliomyelitis is a very contagious viral infection caused by the polio virus, it spreads from person to person and can lead to breathing difficulties, paralysis as well as death. Polio can either be symptomatic or asymptomatic as a large number of people with polio do not show any symptoms. it can also be further classified as paralytic
Researchers have estimated that each year there are one to four million cases of cholera, and 21,000 to 143,000 deaths worldwide due to cholera. This is caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae (World Health Organization, 2016). Despite of the medical advances, Cholera remains a global threat to public health and an indicator of inequity and lack of social development. It remains to be challenge to the modern medical world due to the widely spread of Vibrio cholerae. With this background informations concerning Cholera, the following sections of this literature review will introduce and will summarize the major research findings regarding Vibrio Cholerae.
The seemingly intractable trend of this ancient scourge has compounded the national and household poverty due to intensive loss of productive time to malaria attack and death. A cause for worry at the moment is the growing resistance of the disease to the heap first line drugs and the need for the more expensive Artemisin- Combined Therapy (ACT), (WHO,
Rates of death and ill-health are becoming hard to predict, especially with the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on the stock of human resources. The human resources manager should analyse as many of the previous years’ records as possible to establish the rates and pattern and relate them to age or to length of service of employees. Therefore, the human resources manager needs to look at the above outflows of involuntary wastage. • In voluntary wastage, the role that is played by the following factors must be