# Non Newtonian Fluid Essay

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PRELIMINARIES
2.1 Fluid
A fluid is a substance which has tendency to flow and changes its shape according to the shape of the container. Fluids includes: Liquids Gases
2.2 Fluid Mechanics:
Fluid mechanics is subdivision of physics which settlements using the activities of fluids (liquids, gases). It has three kinds: Fluid kinematics Fluid dynamics Fluid statics 1) Fluid Kinematics:
Fluid kinematics is a field of physics and mechanics it is the study of fluids at motion ignoring pressure force.
2) Fluid dynamics:
In physics fluid dynamics is a subdivision of fluid mechanics it is study of fluid in motion considering pressure force.
3) Fluid statics:
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the subdivision of fluid mechanics that studies
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E .g water air.
2.4.6 Non-Newtonian fluid:
Fluid in which shear stress is not directly proportional to the rate of deformation is called Non-Newtonian fluid. E. g shampoo toothpaste.
2.5 Types of flow: Some types of flow are:
2.5.1 Steady flow
2.5.2 Unsteady flow
2.5.3 Laminar flow
2.5.4 Turbulence flow
2.5.1 Steady flow:
Steady flow is a flow in which the velocity of the fluid does not change at a specific point with time.it is also called stationary point. E. g speed, pressure and cross-sectional area. Arithmetically speaking for steady flows,
∂p/∂t=0 p=p(x, y, z)
2.5.2 Unsteady flow:
Unsteady flow is a flow in which the velocity of the fluid change at a particular point with time. E.g. periodic motion.
∂p/∂t≠0 p=p(x, y, z, t)
2.5.3 Laminar flow:
A flow in which each liquid particle has a definite path and the path of single particle do not cross each other. 2.5.4 Turbulent flow: A flow in which everyone liquid particle does not have definite path and the path of individual particle also cross each other.
2.6 No slip
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2.9 Viscosity:
The property of a fluid that measure its resistance to variation of shape is called viscosity.it is indicated by μ.
2.10 Density (mass density):
It is ratio of mass of fluid to the volume of fluid. Mathematically: 2.10 Nanofluid:
Nanofluid is mixture of nanoparticle and base fluid, nanoparticle consist of Fe (iron),Cu(copper),SWCNT,MWCNT and base fluid include ethylene , glycol , pump oil etc. Nanofluid have higher thermal conductivity than their base fluid.
2.11 Nanoparticles:
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometer in size (nanometer is unit of length in metric system equivalent to one billionth of a meter (0.000, 000,001) representation is nm.
2.12 Base fluid:
In nanofluids the base fluids are the fluids in which nanoparticles are to be adjourned. Some common base fluids are water, oil etc.
2.13 CNT:
The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hollow cylindrical nano configurations whose walls are composed of heavy sheets of carbon.
2.14 SWNT:
Single wall nanotubes have a very trivial diameter as matched to their length.
2.15 MWNT:
MWNT are nested concentric nanotubes whose single cells are