Fluorescent Lamp Research Paper

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Introduction

Fluorescents are a large family of light sources. There are three main types of fluorescent lamps: cold cathode, hot cathode, and electroluminescent. They all use phosphors excited by electrons to create light.
A fluorescent lamp or a fluorescent tube is a low pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light. An electric current in the gas excites mercury vapor which produces short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor coating on the inside of the lamp to glow. A fluorescent lamp converts electrical energy into useful light much more efficiently than incandescent lamps. The typical luminous efficacy of fluorescent lighting systems is 50–100 lumens per watt, several times the
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Compact fluorescent lamps are now available in the same popular sizes as incandescent and are used as an energy-saving alternative in homes.
Because they contain mercury, many fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recommends that fluorescent lamps be segregated from general waste for recycling or safe disposal, and some jurisdictions require recycling of them.
The standard fluorescent lamp was developed for commercial use during the 1930's. The idea of the fluorescent lamp had been around since the 1880's however it took steady work over the decades to finally create a working commercially viable
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Some lamps only need a simple resistor to control power. LEDs need a low power resistor for current control. The resistor is not acceptable for larger power lamps because it creates a lot of waste heat and therefore reduces efficiency. Electronic ballasts usually change the frequency of power to a lamp from 50/60 Hz to 20 kHz+.

Electronic ballasts are usually viewed as being more efficient because by running a lamp at a higher frequency you get more efficacy or brightness from the lamp above 10 kHz. This is in theory, however poorly or cheaply constructed ballasts will ruin the advantage of the electronic ballast. Most electronic ballasts are cheaply constructed in China.

Manufacturers use as little copper and other expensive materials as possible. Components have less ability to deal with heat and rigors of long life. Regular fluorescent lamps (discharge tube assemblies) have the ability to be highly efficient, but poorly made ballasts are the limiting factor. Electronic ballasts also have a way of failing prematurely due to overheating and this limits the great life of the lamp. The stated life of a lamp on the box usually is not to be

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