Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g. fillers) and additives that release inert gases, water or Carbon dioxide during decomposition, and dilute the fuel in the solid and gaseous phases so that the lower ignition limit of the gas mixture is not exceeded, e.g. aluminium hydroxide leaving water [26,13,20]. Fire retardation by Chemical action The most significant chemical reactions that interfere with the combustion process take place either in the solid and gaseous phases: Reaction in the gaseous
Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine K, the rate constant k1 of the forward reaction divided by the rate constant k-1, as well as Ymax, which is the maximum number of moles of acetic acid that can be adsorbed on the surface of the charcoal, per gram of charcoal. Methods A finely powdered charcoal is placed in an acetic acid solution, and some of the acetic acid molecules can be removed from the solution by adsorption on the surface of the charcoal solid. Equilibrium can eventually be established between the acetic acid adsorbed on the surface of charcoal and the unbound acetic acid in the solution. The amount of acetic acid adsorbed onto the surface of the charcoal can be determined through the titration of the original
The other additives that showed great decrease in aging are Solprene 1205 and Calprene 6120. Solprene 1205 seemed to be working well with the 64-22 binder and Calprene 6120 showed high reduction in aging with 67-22 binder. Frequency sweep tests were performed on the binders modified with antioxidant additives to learn about the impact of these additives on linear viscoelastic properties of the binders. The testing was done on both unaged and PAV aged samples. The frequency sweep test was done at 7 temperatures: 10,20,30, 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC and 10 frequencies at each temperature.
Determination of antioxidant activity Scavenging DPPH radicals DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) radical is used free radical method is an in antioxidant assay forwas used to evaluate measured the free radical scavenging activity of the lichen extract . Two millilitreers of 0 .05 mg/mL methanol solution of DPPH radical in the concentration of (0 .05 mg/mL) and 1 mL of the lichen extract (1 mg/mL) were placed in cuvettes. The mixture is storewas stored stand at room temperature for 30 min. Then, the absorbance was measured at 517 nm in a spectrophotometer (Jenway, UK). Ascorbic acid was used as a positive control.
Cetane Number The cetane number of a diesel fuel is the numerical result of engine test designed to evaluate fuel ignition delay. It is defined as the whole number nearest to the value determined by calculation from percentage by volume of normal cetane (cetane No. = 100) in a blend with heptamethylnonane (cetane No. = 15) which matches the ignition quality of the test fuel when compared by this method. High cetane number fuels generally cause lower combustion noise, improved control of combustion, resulting in increased engine efficiency and power output.
The water content is determined based on the dry weight alginate that is a percentage of the dry weight of the initial weight. Ash Content Ash content analysis performed by gravimetric methods AOAC (1990), by burning the sample at 600 oC. Alginate ash content expressed as a percentage by weight of ash to the dry sample weight. Analysis of Pb and Hg Determination of Pb and Hg performed according to the method James (1995), using the tool Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The
Molybdenum was separated with alkylphosphonic acid PC-88A by solvent extraction method, from the leach liquor containing copper, rhenium and iron among other impurities. The extraction efficiency of molybdenum was about 96% at pH 0.8 with zero co-extraction of other metals. The loaded organic was stripped with ammonia aqueous solution. One extraction stage and two stripping stages were required for the enrichment of Mo
Pure tungsten oxide is WO 3 and yellow. Further heat under a hydrogen atmosphere in high nickel boats reduces the oxide to tungsten metal powder "W". In the reducing operation the grain size of the tungsten powder is carefully controlled by controlling these
AUSTRALIAN PINE CONES-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ADSORPTION OF COPPER IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION MUSLIM A. Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala Univeristy No. 7JalanTgk. Syech Abdul Rauf, Darussalam, Banda Aceh Indonesia Corresponding Author: email@example.com Abstract The Australian Pine cones (APCs) was utilised as adsorbent material by physical and chemical activation for the adsorption Cu(II) from aqueous solution. FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted to obtain the active site and to characterise the surface morphology of the APCs activated carbon (APCs AC) prepared through pyrolysis at 1073.15 K and the alkaline activation of NaOH.
FEA Treatment of Thermal Modeling The basis for thermal analysis in ANSYS is a heat balance equation obtained from the principle of conservation of energy. The finite element solution performed via Mechanical APDL calculates nodal temperatures, and then uses the nodal temperatures to obtain other thermal quantities. The ANSYS program handles all three primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Mesh was created in Ansys. The mesh had 144005 elements.