McKee AC, Cantu RC, Nowinski CJ, Hedley-Whyte ET, Gavett BE, et al. (2009) Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Many varying kinds of head injuries can cause epileptic seizures, or other traumatic diseases, disorders and maybe even paralyzation. The most usual form of head injury is a concussion. A concussion can cause many forms of disorders of the brain that are potentially fatal. The most common way to receive a concussion is from contact sports, such as football, basketball, hockey, and even baseball. But the most prevalent sport that causes the highest amount of concussions is in football. The National Football League, or the NFL, is a league that consists of 32 teams from North America, averaging 53 people per team. In modern day society, the sport of American football is known as a violent and barbaric type of sport due to the reputation of the
Concussions can affect people’s lives in many ways; one of them is mentally. Some examples are depression, anxiety, and mood swings. Depression involves, “…feeling sad or worthless, changes in sleep or appetite, difficulty concentrating, withdrawing from others, loss of interest or pleasure in life, lethargy (feeling tired and sluggish), or thoughts of death or suicide.” (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center). Also used by the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center; anxiety causes to feel nervousness or also to worry a lot. Mood swings can happen
Over the previous decades, concussions have increasingly received attention in the world of sports. A concussion is a serious head injury that can happen to any player, and in just about any sport. Indeed, it has been happening to a countless number of athletes for centuries. However, it is also important to note that a concussion can also take place outside of sports, meaning it can happen to anybody. For instance, there have been incidents where a person tripped while running, fell, and the impact of their head’s contact with the ground caused a concussion. Or, in a car accident many front-seat passengers, or even the driver, have slammed their heads against the dashboard/steering wheel, also possibly resulting in a concussion. Concussions when treated can be healed in a timely manner. Unfortunately, throughout history, there has been a tendency for people to overlook a concussion as a serious injury, therefore, making it more problematic than it already is. In the times to come, there will certainly continue to be dangers for athletes in just about any sport, as they are unavoidable. However, focusing strictly
A reportable concussion had been described as change in brain function induced by trauma. It was demonstrated by: first, altered consciousness, including being amnesic, confused, or rendered insentient. Second, symptoms and signs usually accompanying post-concussion syndrome, such as, persistent headaches, impaired balance, syncope, cognitive dysfunction, hearing loss, blurred vision, drowsiness, lethargy, fatigue, memory disturbance, and difficulty in carrying out routine activities (Casson, Viano and Powell 471). The Concussion Legacy Foundation disclosed that CTE, a degenerative brain disease caused by brain trauma, had been diagnosed among football players from more than 100 college football programs (Concussion Legacy Foundation). Furthermore, researchers at the Department of Veterans Affairs discovered that the brain tissue of 131 out of 165 football players, at all levels, had tested positive for CTE (Schumaker). Concussions are the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) among football players.
When a concussion occurs, the brain is slammed against the inside of the skull and can be bruised. The brain tissue can tear due to different parts moving at different speeds. The ion and chemical ratio becomes unbalanced, causing nerve failure and unconsciousness. Oxygen is limited, slowing recovery. Multiple concussions and swelling can cause progressive cognitive decline which is like dementia (Brain Facts). According to author, Lauren Tarshis, “Some symptoms of a concussion are immediate, like loss of consciousness. But often signs are more subtle and don't show up until hours or days after the injury which can be forgetfulness, confusion, headaches, balance problems or dizziness, light or noise sensitivity, sluggishness or fogginess, irritability or emotional symptoms, concentration or memory problems and blurred vision.” So if an athlete was to get a concussion they might not even know right away and put themselves at risk by continuing to play. As seen with Zack, second impact syndrome could be fatal and ruin your life. Concussions are not rare either. Each year an average of 140,000 football athletes, alone, deal with the injury. In the NFL, 100-120 concussions occur a
Injuries of the nervous system are of great importance. They are common in war, but also in peacetime, particularly because of the large number of road accidents and accidents at work nowadays. A concussion is a minor brain injury caused by mechanical forces that lead to temporary brain dysfunction. Concussion
A concussion can be defined as a mild traumatic brain injury caused by excessive impact to the head. The word concussion comes from the Latin word concutere, which means "to shake violently." The injury is caused by the brain moving forcefully back and forth. The brain is made up of soft tissue and protected by spinal fluid and encased in the protective shell of the skull. The rapid movement can cause chemical changes in the brain and can sometimes stretch and damage brain cells or nerves. Moreover, it’s a bruise on the brain that alters mental state. Things like car and bicycle accidents, falls while playing sports or at work, and fighting are some of the leading sources of concussions.
Axon tearing occurs in more severe brain injuries, but proof is lacking for this mechanism in concussion. It is more likely that concussion is due to rotational acceleration of the brain (jiggling of the brain) that produces a disordered metabolic cascade or biochemical injury such as altered metabolism of glucose or derangement of adenine nucleotides. It is still uncertain where in the brain concussion occurs, or the exact origin of the symptoms of acute concussion. (Tator,1)
Concussion are created as a result of the brain being slammed against the skull. This can cause inability to think clearly, sleeping more than usual, easily upset, nausea & vomiting. After receiving a concussion it is extremely important to get lots of rest so the brain may have time to repair the injuries it has sustained. Head trauma would be treated similar to how a concussion would be handled. Whether it’s a concussion or head trauma it’s important to go to the doctors & have them confirm there is no serious injuries to the brain. These two factors can cause serious havoc on the brain if not dealt with properly. Concussions & head trauma need to be taken more seriously & have more precautions when dealing with
The brain is a soft organ surrounded by spinal fluid to protect it from slamming into the skull. But if you are hit hard enough, the brain will hit the skull causing a concussion. A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is caused by a blow to the head or body, fall, or another injury that jars or shakes the brain. Brains are like gelatin and the skull protects it from every day bumps and jolts; a violent blow could cause the brain to slide back and forth against the walls of the skull. In sports, concussions happen more often in contact sports such as football, but women get concussed more easily than men. Other common ways to get a concussion are fights, falls, playground injuries, car crashes, and bike accidents.
A concussion is a tramatic brain injury that alters the way your brain function. Although the effects are usually temporary the effects can be delayed for hours or days and can last days to months. The effects include: headaches, and problems with concentration, memory loss, balance and coordination. Concussions are usually caused caused by a blow to the head or neck or upper part of the body. The cause of a concussion can be from a contact sport, a car accident, or even a kid falling on a playground. A concussion can cause loss of consciousness but most patients that have a consussion do not loose consciousness. A blow to the head, neck, or upper body can cause you brain to hit the walls of the skull violently. All concussions cause injury
More now than ever athletes are being watched out for when there is trauma to the brain. After multiple cases of poor treatment to concussions parents and doctors are cracking down on letting concussions not be a big deal. As more studies advance, it is discovered that every case is different. The range is created by severity, past experience with trauma, and how the patient heals. Concussions in sports can range in severity, and how they affect each individual over time depending on times of impact.
In a research article by Sours, George, Shuo, Roys, & Gullapalli (2015), the functional connectivity and metabolic integrity of the thalamus was measured post-acute civilian TBI to determine the severity of post concussive symptoms. The hypothesis is supported by the idea that axonal and shearing injuries caused during a TBI alters functional communication with neural circuits including in the brains relay center for sensory information, the thalamus. The sample consisted of 77 mTBI patients recruited from a trauma center at the University of Maryland. Inclusion criteria included a loss of conscious and/or amnesia or facial trauma consistent with TBI. Measurements included the Mini Mental State Exam, the Military Acute Concussion Evaluatin, and the Modified Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms
Sometimes deep hemorrhages can expand into the ventricles – the fluid filled spaces in the center of the brain.