Foley And Van Valin: Inter-Clausal Relationship

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Clause combining is basically concerned with the clausal relationship traditionally studied in terms of coordination and subordination. Lehmann defines it as a "relation of dependency or sociation between the clauses” (182). For Foley and van Valin, clause linkage is the unification of the "internal morphosyntax of the clause with the complex structures of the sentence, and ultimately, of discourse" (238). They study clause linkage in terms of the binary positions of the characteristics like [+ -] dependency and [+ -] embeddedness. According to them, complex sentences have three types of nexus as illustrated in the figure 1.
Figure 1 Inter-clausal relationship

- embedded - dependent = Coordination
+ embedded + dependent = Subordination
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ek mana behan ʌ ek mana sãjʰ ek mana behan ʌ ek mana sãjʰ one QUNT morning and one QUNT evening
‘One mana for the morning and one mana for the evening.’ (BL.FM-79.058) c. dusʌri din kuṭliyʌ kʰunliyʌ pugadeliyʌ dusʌri din kuṭ -l -iyʌ kʰun -l -iyʌ puga -de -l -iyʌ second day unhusk -PST -3SG clean -PST -3SG deliver -give -PST -3SG 'Next day (she) unhusked, cleaned and delivered.' (F.BM-78.084)
The examples (1a-c) illustrate the phrasal coordination where the nouns brʌhmaji, sʌŋkʌr bʰʌgʌwan, bʰag and lʌksmi (1a) are coordinated with the coordinative conjunct ʌ 'and'. Similarly, in (1b), two NPs ek mana behan and ek mana sãjʰ ‘one mana in the morning and one mana in the evening’ and in (1c), three verbs kuṭliyʌ 'unhusk -PST -3SG' kʰunliyʌ 'clean -PST -3SG' pugadeliyʌ 'deliver -give -PST -3SG' are coordinated with the coordinator
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In syndetic coordination, two or more coordinands are linked with one or more overt coordinators, whereas in asyndetic coordination the coordinands are simply juxtaposed without any overt linking device. Although both the types of coordination are attested in Chitoniya Tharu, the evidences in our corpus assure that Chitoniya Tharu prefers the asyndetic coordination. Only a few evidences of syndetic coordination are attested in the whole corpus. However, we can find the evidences of both monodyndetic and bisyndetic coordination in this language. Bisyndetic coordination is attested in the emphatic and emphatic negative coordination where correlative coordinators are used. Emphatic coordination is discussed under conjunctive coordination below.
On the semantic level, Chitoniya Tharu exhibits all the four types of coordinate constructions that Haspelmath (Coordination 2) discusses: conjunctive coordination, disjunctive coordination, adversative coordination and causal coordination. We proceed to discuss all these types of coordination in Chitoniya Tharu following Haspelmath (2004, 2007) in the paragraphs to come.
2.2 Conjunctive

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