The Digestive System The digestive system is a system consisting of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, large intestine, the rectum and the anus. The functions of the digestive system are: • To break down food particles into molecules for digestion • To absorb into the bloodstream the small molecules produced by digestion • To eliminate un digested and unabsorbed foodstuffs and other waste products from the body The full digestive process begins at the mouth. The food enters the mouth and is chewed.
In order for organisms to carry on life, energy must be provided. The food taken into the body must be broken down into smaller pieces before it can be used as a source of energy by the organism. This process of breaking down food is called digestion and there are many enzymes used in order for digestion to occur.
The internal environment of the stomach has strong acids and active enzymes that trigger the occurrence of chemical reactions that begin to break down the ingested food. Thereafter, the process of absorption follows, whereas absorption of nutrients occurs in the intestinal tract. The process of absorption is short and is followed by excretion via the cloaca. Similarly, the liver and the pancreas assist in the process of excretion. Additionally, urinary and fecal waste travel through urinary passages and generative canals that connect to the cloaca and are emitted from the cloaca as jelly like, brown droppings.
The digestive system is responsible for chemically and mechanically breaking down food and includes organs such as, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, rectum, anus, and additional accessory organs. These organs all aid in the breakdown of food. Food is broken down mechanically by chewing and churning in the stomach, and chemically by acidic enzymes in the stomach and in the small intestine which receives enzymes from the pancreas that are specifically designed for the breakdown of nutrients. Once the food and nutrients are broken down, the excretory system removes whatever the body decides is waste by filtering blood in the nephrons of the kidneys and turning it into urine which is then collected in the bladder and removed from the body when the bladder is
The digestion tract for earthworms is much like the crayfish. Food enters the mouth and gets pushed down into the esophagus by the pharynx. Next in line is the crop; an organ very similar the cardiac stomach. In the crop food in held until it is moved into
Next, this semi-liquid mixture enters into the small intestine, where most of the calories and essential nutrients are absorbed by your body. Finally, whatever is left passes into the large intestine and eventually through the colon as it is expelled from the body. Gastric bypass surgery restructures the stomach and intestinal system, resulting in intentional malabsorption and limiting the patient 's ability to eat large quantities of food.
In this section I will explain how two of the body systems interrelate to perform a function. My two body systems are the cardiovascular system and the digestive system and how they work together to enable food to be digested. First of all, the digestive system works by passing food through the human system, whilst breaking it down and absorbing nutrients. The circulatory system transports the oxygen and other compounds through our bodies. These two work together to process and circulate nutrients so our cells can use them for fuel.
In the article, “Some of My Best Friends are Germs” Michael Pollan emphasizes the importance of microbes and how they affect our bodies and health. I thought a lot of this information to be interesting such as how microbes make up 99% of our bodies and how they contribute to the way we metabolize foods. I wasn’t aware of how microbes such as bacteria outnumber our body’s cells but yet fascinatingly interact with host cells to create optimal health. It was surprising to read that gut bacteria can alter the way we store fat or the way we respond to hormones that make us feel hungry or full which can ultimately lead to obesity because most often we hear that its due to an unhealthy lifestyle.
At least 70 million people in the U.S. suffer from some sort of digestive illness (not including heartburn), and digestive problems account for nearly 10% of all healthcare spending. The hard-working gut allows nutrients and water to enter the body while preventing the entry of toxins/antigens. It’s a selective barrier between “us” and the outside world. But a distressed gut can’t act in our defense.
The proper functioning of one system relies on the proper functioning of the other system. In other words, the digestive system needs to be in good working order to support the functions of the cardiovascular system. An example of the digestive and cardiovascular systems interrelating is: the first step in digestion of fat is to dissolve it into the intestine where bile acids produced by the liver dissolve the fat into fatty acids and cholesterol. The bile acids join with the fatty acids and cholesterol and vessels then carry the changed fat to the veins of the chest, and the blood carries the fat to storage in different parts of the body.
Not only do you physically break down your food by chewing, but digestive enzymes in your saliva begin to chemically break down carbohydrates and proteins. The more you chew, the more you mix these enzymes with your food and kick start the digestive process. Tip #2: Put your fork down between bites. Similar to tip #1, the idea is to slow down.
The digestive system is located around the stomach area. Along with the digestive system, many other organ systems all work together to create an organism. An example of this would be if a person eats a sandwich and then goes for a run. During the run, the circulatory system helps the body breathe, the muscle system helps the bones move, and all the while the digestive system digests the food. Later on, the excretory system gets rid of the waste, or food that the body can’t use for nourishment.
In the first four chapters of Deadly Companions author Crawford takes us on a journey on how microbes shaped our history. Starting with when microbes first appeared on planet Earth to Darwinian evolution of single celled organism. In chapter two “Our Microbial Inheritance” she discussed the relationship of microbes with hunter-gatherers and early settlements; and their relationship to disease. She looks at the impact of microbes on the lives of individuals and the population as a whole. Hunter-gatherers were small groups of people that hunted for food, moving from place to place.
The Wild Life of Our Bodies is one of many compelling non-fiction books written by author and scientist Rob Dunn. Mr. Dunn received his PhD in Ecology and Evolution in 2003 from The University of Connecticut and is currently an associate professor at North Carolina State University. This book does a great job of using the findings from many different relatively recent scientific experiments conducted at research laboratories and university's across the world to formulate larger hypothesis’s and theories about how the organisms we have existed alongside for ages may have affected human and early homo sapien evolution. This book's thesis and main theme revolve around how the effects of modern living and our warfare against the other creatures we coexist with from protists, to insects, to large mammalian predators affect the way we currently live our day to day lives. The book is divided into six sections, the first of which covers the worms and parasites that used to live inside our bodies and the effect that they produce on individuals suffering from auto immune diseases that affect the the digestive systems like Crohn's or