With about 80 percent of livelihoods dependent on agriculture, the population is highly vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters such as annual dry spells and flooding – Malawi experienced both in 2015 with particularly severe floods in the south affecting as many as 1 million people. Large parts of Malawi continue to suffer from food insecurity on an annual basis, particularly during the lean season (usually between December and March), due to high food prices and insufficient household crop production caused by prolonged dry spells and/or flooding. According to the Malawi Vulnerability Assessment Committee, an estimated 2.83 million people will experience acute food insecurity during the 2015/16 lean season. Women are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity as their extensive home-based workload and care work does not usually translate into economic gain, limiting their ability to afford a balanced diet. Agriculture is vitally important to Malawi, employing 80% of the workforce, producing nearly 35% of GDP and 80% of export earnings.
People that have food security are normally healthy and fit. Yet, people who do not are usually sick and starving. “Results of 41 nutrition surveys conducted across Somalia from October to December 2014 indicate that an estimated 202,600 children under the age of five are acutely malnourished, including 38,200 who are severely malnourished and face a high risk of morbidity and death." according to FSNAU. Not just adults are suffering in the famine, children are too.
The wastage is high in fruits and vegetables which is nearly 50 percent. With the decrease in the size of total farmland and in the number of farmers worldwide, and with the advance of industrial and service sectors at unimaginable pace, food production is not increasing at expected level. Moreover, the increased usage of food products for industrial requirements and bio fuels is also a reason for food scarcity. Apart from this, food production is badly hit by the drastic changes taking place in the climate. It’s a matter of grave concern that all these developments are resulting in hunger.
The IFSS has been largely considered a failure mainly due to the fact that food insecurity remains a pressing concern with over 14 million food insecure people in South Africa and very little progress in realisation of the Millennium Development Goal target of halving those in hunger by
The main imports are: cement and construction material, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, and foodstuffs. Despite being setback in the export side of the economy caused by the genocide of 1994, Rwanda has put in no effort to bring the economy back to the way it was. Rwanda’s exports include: Animal hides, Cassiterite, Coffee, Coltan, Iron ore, Tea, and Tin. Currently, Rwanda’s road to recovery is mainly dependent on coffee and tea prices in the international market. Tin ore and animal hide are Rwanda’s lesser export goods.
Food supply problems and to some extent price stability of basic food stuffs was primary a focus of food availability thereby food security at national and international level (FAO., 2005). Thus, food security in the 1970s is the issue of national food supply 's capacity to meet the population’s energy and nutrient needs. The concept of household food security has been understood by many development workers as the availability of food in the world market place and on the food production systems of developing countries (Bedeke,
The poor people are in lack of education, shelter, food, cloth, security and income earnings. Most of all, they are under poverty line. Poverty is their constant companion.We face three mainproblem economically, politically and environmentally. The economy of Bangladesh is mostlyagricultural. But scientific method of cultivation is not yet familiarized.
This phenomenon has continued to be the most important development challenge of Ethiopia (FAO, 2012; Anderson & Farmer, 2015; Anderson, 2010; Asefa, 2003). These authors have confirmed that the major challenge is ensuring food security in which the problem is multidimensional in nature because of the prevalence of shock and stress risks. In Ethiopia, households’ capacity to manage risks is low due to multiple stressors coupled with poor asset base, making them particularly less resilient to food insecurity (Devereux et al., 2008; MoARD, 2009). As past studies confirmed, the low resilience to food insecurity is attributed to low agricultural production and productivity, non-farm employment, low income, low market integration, biophysical resources degradation, low level of farm technology, limited access to basic education and low quality, inadequate health and sanitation, population growth, poor governance, etc. (Asefa, 2003; FAO, 2012; 2017; Bewket, 2009; Beyene & Muche, 2010; Gilligan & Hoddinott, 2006).
I would like to mention one of Sub-Saharan country Kenya: In Kenya infant mortality declined- first contributing a rise in life expectancy at birth from about 42 years in the early 1950s to 56 years. In the late 1970s before fertility began a decline from then-prevalent eight children per woman. In the early 1950s, Pakistan had a life expectancy of 41 years and an average and an average fertility rate of 6.6 children per woman. Early 1980s life expectancy has reached 59 years due in large parts to reduction in infants and child deaths. There are many factors which made life expectancy gap in developing and developing countries, poor
Ricardo, along with numerous Mangyan coffee growers started out with traditional practices such as binayati or the drying of unpeeled coffee berries, pinulot or the manual picking of coffee berries from the ground, and rambol or the random mixing of coffee berries. Such practices resulted to lower quality coffee berries that decreased revenues. They also struggled with unpredictable market situations and consistent haggling of farm products in the local market. Due to his lack of education, Ricardo often felt that he was unable to transact business properly and believed he was cheated in the market place. He earned as little as P10 per cup of coffee berries.