Tn 4351 was originally isolated from bacteroides fragilis  . The transposon was successfully introduced into Cytophaga succinicans, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Flexibacter canadiansis, Flexibacter strain SFI and Sporocytophaga myxococcoides by conjugation . Tn 4351carries two antibiotic resistance gene. One of the codes for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin which is expressed in bactroides but not in E.Coli. The other gene codes for resistance in tetracycline and is expressed in aerobically grpwn E. coli, but not in anaerobically grpwn E. coli or in bacteroides. The transposon of Tn4351 was originally detected in E. coli which carried an unstable chimeric plasmid, pSS-2. The mobilization of pSS-2 from onestrain of E. coli
The data observed and recorded in this lab shows that the concentration of miracle gro’ does affect the growth rate and germination speed of black eyed peas. The data is shown through two graphs and two data tables. The control group in this experiment is the seeds with a 0% concentration of miracle gro’, therefore the seeds with just water. The experimental groups are different concentrations of miracle gro’ including a 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% concentration. The variable in this experiment is the amount/concentration of miracle gro’. On day one no seeds germinated. By day two, seeds in the control group, 15% and 25% experimental groups had germinated. On day two the experimental group with 25% concentration of miracle gro’ had the most seeds
A cigarette is made up of seven thousand chemicals but one of the worst because it is addictive is nicotine. Once the nicotine is breathed in it is absorbed into the bloodstream and within twenty eight seconds it goes into the brain. There are major problems with nicotine entering into the body. First of all not only does the nicotine enter into the brain, but once it is in there it attaches to a neurotransmitter called acetylene and mimics what it is supposed to do, which is control muscle movement, breathing, and the heart rate. However what makes nicotine addictive is when it released to parts of the brain that produce pleasure. Scientists have recently discovered that nicotine raises the level of a neurotransmitter called dopamine, which is a part of the brain that produces pleasure. Another problem with nicotine getting inside the body is the fact that is actually a chemical and it is used as a bug repellent or eliminator.
While walking down the sidewalk on a beautiful, sunny day, you walk in front of your favorite bakery which has it’s doors propped open and the gorgeous smells are trolling out of the sweet smelling bakery. You take a deep breathe in and all of a sudden are stopped mid-breathe by the scent of sour skittles. You look to your left and see a guy vaping, and the vapor coming from his device is eliminating the delicious scent of the bakery. Vaping has become a popular product on the market, but some of the effects it has on the body make it a worse choice than smoking. Those who vape are susceptible to bronchitis or severe cough, teary or dry eyes, and lung cancer. These risks that those who vape take are serious conditions, but those who do the vaping aren’t the only ones susceptible to these conditions, those around them are also exposed to secondhand vaping which is just as bad as taking in the vapor directly from
“Tobacco is a filthy weed that from the devil does proceed; it drains your purse, it burns your clothes, and makes a chimney of your nose”. With this statement, Benjamin Waterhouse, a physician, co-founder and professor of Harvard Medical School, recognized how smoking tobacco directly affects the quality and quantity of life. In the past, when Columbus arrived in the Americas, he found the natives using tobacco in much the same manner as it is used today. Tobacco use became popular among European settlers in the 16th century and soon became the chief commodity exchanged by the colonists for European-manufactured articles. Almost 500 years later, tobacco remains a large part of many countries’ culture and today it is widely used, but since it gives a huge negative impact on the quality and quantity of life, tobacco use became a global
In this experiment it will be analysed the damage alcohols can have on biological membranes. Membranes are made up of lipids and proteins. Membranes usually help maintain the balance in a cell as it holds all the cellular materials. There are various membranes and all have a variation of functions.
As a result, plants have adapted ways to protect themselves against their natural predators by implementing “defense mechanisms”. Such adaptations may be structural or chemical, where structural mechanisms are simply parts of plant structural arrangement, such as thorns. Chemical defense mechanisms are more complex, and involve production of retarding chemical compounds and toxins. These volatile compounds are often released when the plant is damaged, and have physical effects on the predator. (Steppuhn, A., Gase, K., Krock, B., Halitschke, R., & Baldwin, I. T.) This experiment examines the natural defense mechanism of a tobacco plant, and its effects. Approximately 5% of a tobacco plant constitutes a naturally occurring alkaloid, nicotine, which functions as a resistant factor against herbivore pests. (Bennett, R. N., & Wallsgrove, R. M.) Nicotine is toxic to most herbivores through its interaction with the nervous system. Nicotine acts as a blocking agent to certain neurotransmitters, which are responsible for regulation of physical processes. Generally, it considered to a stimulant, thus nicotine has an effect on heart rate regulation. More complex organisms, such as mammals, are able to the effects of nicotine and rid of it from the system fairly quickly, since the half-life of nicotine is about an hour. Yet, smaller species, are not able to combat the effects of
Most if not all e-cigarettes work the same way. On the inside there is a heating element, battery and a cartridge which holds nicotine as and other liquids that provide flavoring. By providing the user with nicotine, it eliminates cigarette smoke and provide the user with vapor instead.
What are effects of the volume of a potato and the amount of weight it loses when placed in salt solution?
The purpose of this experiment is to test for mitochondrial activity by isolating different organelles using the differential centrifugation process. Studying mitochondria is extremely important because they control the death and life of the cell by regulating the apoptotic signals (Frezza et al 2007). Also they are responsible for the metabolic reactions (aerobic respiration) and the production of ATP (Frezza et al 2007). Three hypotheses were formed based on my knowledge. First, it was hypothesized that test tube "A", the control, would not show any red concentration, test tube "B" which contains supernatant II would show the most red concentration and test tube "C" which contains sediment II would only show a little red concentration. The second hypothesis states that the raw corn kernels would have mitochondrial activity while the boiled corn kernels would not. The last hypothesis interprets that the "gunk" and sediment I will both contain starch granules. It was only expected to find mitochondrial activity in Supernatant II. Unfortunately, after performing this experiment, we were not able to support this hypothesis and come up with a conclusion. A possible explanation for why there was no mitochondrial activity observed in the boiled corn kernels might be because increasing the temperature would disintegrate dehydrogenases and thus they wouldn't function as efficient or they
The experiment shall use several concentrations of sucrose solution and a substance known as Methylene blue. A piece of potato/ carrot shall be placed in a boiling tube and the solution shall be poured into it. This tube shall have Methylene blue added into it. After incubation some of this solution shall be taken out with a pipette and inserted into a separate boiling tube containing the same sucrose solution however this solution shall be known as the pre-incubated solution. The drop shall be watched so as to see if the density of the water and concentration of sucrose has increased or not, displaying the water
“When I was 12 years old I was going to science we were doing our safety lab so we were going to all the stuff she showed us the fire extinguisher and It went off and hit the table, it then went in my eye I think I was shocked that it went off I jumped up and ran back and forth I was freaking out, then my teacher got me and ran me to the eye washer and I walk back and was trying to help clean the mess, but my eye burned bad so I went to the clinic so they washed my eye out and told me to take off my shirt and she gave another one
For many years smoking cigarettes has been legal to smoke in public places. Would you allow this to continue even knowing the harm and dangers it can bring people who smoke and even people who don 't? Imagine being in a nice family friendly park on a sunny, summer day. There is grey disgusting cancerous smoke through the air you and your loved ones breathe. I believe that smoking cigarettes in public places should be illegal for many reasons such as the health and safety dangers of others and even myself.
Which one has a higher rate or respiration between dicotyledonous (peas) and monocotyledonous (maize) seeds and what is the effect of temperatures (room temperature, 40, 60) on the rate of respiration as determined by oxygen usage estimated with a respirometer?
Indonesia is one of the developing countries that have high levels of consumption and production of cigarette. Variation product and price cigarettes cause Indonesia has become one of the producers and consumers cigarette the largest in the world (Anies, 2006). According to the Director of the Directorate General of Customs and Excise, Frans Rupang, permitting the establishment of a cigarette production is relatively easy. Now we have at least 3,800 cigarette factories, including home-based classes. The amount was the largest in the world (http://bisniskeuangan.kompas.com accessed 25 April 2015).