Synovial or freely movable would include, ball and socket for example the hip. Hinge for example elbow, gliding for example the carpals at wrist and pivot for example the radius and ulna. Movement of bones in the human body. Abduction is the movement away from the body, adduction is the movement towards the body. Flexion is the bending a limb towards the body, extension is the extending a limb away from the body.
There is 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones. There are 7 bones in the head are associated bones. Then working down there is 25 bones of the thorax which is found in the sternum, these are more commonly known as our ribs. The ribs protect the organs in the centre of your body such as your lungs, liver and heart. Then finally there are 26 bones in your vertebral column, these are the bones that run down your back including the sacrum and the coccyx.
The musculoskeletal system is a complex arrangement of bones, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue. This system provides form, support, stability, and movement for the body. It is comprised of two separate systems, the skeletal system and the muscular system. Both of these systems are vital for the body to be able to function properly. For instance, the skeletal system protects and supports the weight of the body’s organs, serves as storage for calcium and phosphorous, and contains critical components for the production of blood.
The Structure of the Buccal Cavity or “Mouth” The Oral Mucosa Every part of the buccal cavity is covered in a layer of oral mucosa. Oral mucosa is a protective layer of lining that made of a mucous membrane and keratin. This layer protects the buccal cavity and helps to defend the body from being invaded by harmful bacteria, germs, and parasites. The Gingivae or “Gums” The buccal cavity is more than teeth and by understanding the structure of the buccal cavity, one can learn how to care for one’s oral hygiene appropriately. The gums are the pink tissue that holds and not only support the part of the tooth that is visible, but also the root of the tooth.
This nerve gives sensation to the thumb, index finger, long finger, and half of the ring finger. The ulnar nerve travels through a separate tunnel, called Guyon's canal. This tunnel is formed by two carpal bones, the pisiform and hamate, and the ligament that connects them. After passing through the canal, the ulnar nerve branches out to supply feeling to the little finger and half of the ring finger. Branches of this nerve also supply the small muscles in the palm and the muscle that pulls the thumb toward the palm.
The supraspinatus originates at the supraspinatus fossa of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus. Its function is to assists the deltoid abduct the arm while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H joint. The infraspinatus originates at the infraspinatus fossa on the posterior surface of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humorous. Its function is to adduct and laterally rotates the shoulder at the G/H joint while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H
3.Cauda equina - It makes of spinal nerves and spinal nerve root that located near the first lumbar vertebra of spinal cord. 4.Filum terminale - is a fibrous tissue structure that proceeded downward from the apex of the conus medullaris. It has two sections: filum terminale internum and filum terminale externum.
Lab 2: Force Angle relationship 250 words 4 marks In this lab we concentrated on investigating the relationship between joint angle and consequential ability of muscles to produce force. The knee joint was focused on with the quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedialis vastus medialis) and hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus. biceps femoris lomg head and short head) being the main muscle groups studied. A relationship exists between the length of the muscle before the onset of contraction and the tetanic tension that each contracting fibre can subsequently develop at that length (Sherwood 2010). For every muscle there is an optimal length at which maximal force can be achieved on a subsequent tetanic contraction.
The disks allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing. They separate the vertebrae from each other so they also protect them from the wear and tear. There is an empty space in the spine to permit the nerve roots and spinal cord to pass inside. There are 33 vertebrae and 23 intervertebral disks in normal adult spine. The vertebrae are numbered and divided into several regions; which correspond to the curves of the spinal column: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx as shown in figure (2.1).
In the classic nomenclature(28) the vermis and hemisphere of the cerebellum is divided into three lobes namely anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe (Fig 2 and 3), by two deep fissures known as the primary fissure between the anterior and posterior lobes and the posterolateral fissure between the tonsil and flocculonodular lobe(24,25). The anterior lobe is bound anteriorly by superior medullary velum and posteriorly by the primary fissure. The vermis and hemispheres in the anterior lobe are further divided into lobules by two fissures namely precentral fissure and the preculminate fissure. The vermis is divided into three lobules namely lingula, central lobule and culmen. Lingula and the central lobule separated by the precentral fissure, central lobule and the culmen separated by the preculminate sulcus.
5) List the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans. - Maintain boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, take in and digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of wastes, reproduce themselves, and grow. 6) List the survival needs of the body. - Nutrients, oxygen, water, and appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure. 7) Define homeostasis and explain its significance.
Synergist muscles also help to create the movement. In the bicep curl the synergist muscles are the brachioradialis and brachialis which assist the biceps to create the movement and stabilise the elbow joint Type of contraction Concentric Contraction From the Sport and PE book by Kevin Wesson, Nesta Wiggins-James, Graham Thompson and Sue Hartigan I have gained some extra information on concentric contraction. Within the book it explains that this type of contraction involves the muscle shortening while contracting. A main example of this would be that this occurs during the upward phase of a bicep curl in the tricep. Eccentric Contraction An eccentric muscle contraction is a type of muscle activation that increases tension on a muscle as it lengthens.
Doctors use MRIs, x-rays, and different types of test (such as measuring the heel height or gait analysis) to discover which type of genu recurvatum the athlete has. The x-rays and MRIs are used to show information on the bone alignment and soft tissue in the knee and leg (Credi, 2014). Signs and symptoms of genu recurvatum include difficulty with endurance activities and pinching in the front of the knee (LaPrade, 2012). Although, when the athlete is standing statically, it can be easily spotted that their knees are hyperextended; a test can also be performed to see if the athlete has genu recurvatum. Measuring the athletes’ heel height is usually the best way to diagnose the patient with genu recurvatum (LaPrade, 2012).
The basic unit is the muscle fiber with many nuclei. These muscle fibers are striated (having transverse streaks) and each acts independently of neighboring muscle fibers. Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle, found in the walls of the hollow internal organs such as blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, bladder, and uterus, is under control of the autonomic nervous system. Smooth muscle cannot be controlled consciously and thus acts involuntarily. The non-striated (smooth) muscle cell is spindle-shaped and has one central nucleus.
The four components of the axial skeleton are: SKULL (consists of 28 bones that include the cranium, which encloses and protects the brain and facial bones). VERTEBRAL COLUMN (supports the skull and protect the spinal cord). RIBS ( 12 pairs of bow shaped bones that protect the organs in the body cavities of the trunk). STERNUM ( aka breastbone and supports the collar bones). The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement).