Each facet of nationalism served to unify the country as a whole and mold it into a modern society. Economic nationalism began to develop in America during Monroe’s presidency, in what became known as “the American System”. One component of this was protective
The following paper will reveal how the United States responded to the Schuman Plan and further discusses the respond to it. In the following paragraphs I will emphasis on the reasoning of the US government. As a matter of fact, the US is a diverse and highly populated country. Thus, the reasoning of the general public will be left out because it is outside the limits of this paper. For the analysis, I will make use primary and secondary sources.
This can be seen through the gradual engagement between Great Britain and America. For example, in Britain a consumer revolution happened. America was able to bask in the glory and financial successes of the motherland and become a more intricate part of Britain’s economy. This increased the mainland colonies as well with their production of agricultural goods. Another reason why Great Britain established colonies in America was to create a safe haven for financial resources.
Robert B. McCalla has remarked that a distinction should be made "between a psychological environment – the decision maker 's image of the setting in which decisions are carried out – and an operational environment – the actual setting in which they are carried out". While the first part of McCalla 's statement constitutes 'perception ', 'misperception ' is a situation where there is a mismatch between perception and reality. Yet, perception and misperception play a major role in the outcome of states ' foreign policy making. Their influential role in international politics has been debated by Robert Jervis in his ground-breaking book Perception and Misperception in International Politics whose ideas have been utilised in this book. The way Iranians, particularly their leaders, perceived the British has had a great impact on the formulation of the Iranian attitude towards Britain.
(Wendt, 1995) Conversely, Martha Finnemore has proposed another version of constructivist in her 1996 book, “National Interests in International Society”. State behaviour is defined by identity and interest. Identity and interests are defined by international forces, that is, by the norms of behaviour embedded in international society. The norms of international society are transmitted to states through international organizations. They shape national policies by ‘teaching’ states what their interests should be.
From these, liberal ideals are portrayed to have two main strands with one founded on liberal nationalism while the other on liberal internationalism (Reitan 43). The rational foreign policy approach that that elite policy-makers can consider when confronted with an international hurdle would be similar to the approach adopted in the film. By first securing themselves, the focus is first given to the maintenance of the national sovereignty and the security of liberal institutions at home. In that case, foreign policy should begin with liberal nationalism. Such was evident in the movie as the United States began by securing itself (Reitan 43).
More specifically, some authors see the theory of structuration, complexity theory and habitus as theories that seek to explain the process of social change. In the meantime, other scholars find similarities in structuration theory and Luhmann’s self-organization theory, given that both of them share an emphasis on the meaning of communication and actions. Academic literature shows that structuration theory and Bourdieu’s theory of habitus are closely intertwined. More specifically, Morrison (2013) claims that ‘Giddens’ ‘duality of structure’ rehearses Bourdieu’s conception of structured structures and structuring structures’ (p. 313). However, Giddens and Bourdieu only explained a circular system of ‘agent-system’ interaction, but did not give an explanation about how this cycle breaks, and thus, a social change or dysfunction occurs.
The purpose of this section is to highlight the two main theories that will be used to explain the self-help housing phenomenon in the study area. Firstly, the use of the Neo-liberal theory is an attempt to clarify and explain the meaning, nature and challenges of the economic context associated with the phenomenon of self-help housing and housing consolidation. Secondly, the Positivist theory will be used to predict and understand why the self-help housing phenomenon may unfold. In the specific context of housing and for the purpose of this study, the positivist theory will be presented to interpret housing in three dimensions which could explain or justify the reasoning behind incentives of self-help housing for low income households. These
This difference appears due to the contrast approach of each of the systems. As neorealists try to structurise the world and seek to find any interdependence at the international system they tend to see the state slightly in a different way. That is why, as Waltz and neorealists in general have more systematic and structured approach. It is also asserted by them that the policy of any state will be constructed more or less automatically as they would be influenced by external factors. While Morgenthau argued that states are bound to conduct their foreign policy in terms of national interest (Jackson, Sørensen, 2013: 81).
Then, it will briefly discuss the reciprocal connection between propaganda and the history of international communication. Propaganda and politics are interrelated. Politics often require the use of propaganda to reinforce its legitimacy and achieve its purpose; similarly, propaganda may affect political situation by shifting public opinion. As an outline of how propaganda can be exploited as a political tool, one might consider the following scenario. When the government wants to achieve its ideal of certain policy, it might use messages that give positive light to this policy.