If Second Language Acquisition refers to the way how learners acquire a second language and how overall the ability to communicate; and a process influenced by internal and external factors that determinate the way learners acquire the L2 knowledge in the way they do. In my case the process, as an adult learner, the process has prolonged for a long time. And I have to analyse the factors that have influenced the construction of my interlanguage and how they have taken me to my proficiency in a second language, in this case, English. The formation of my interlanguage has been developed through a long period of time; consequently it has been influenced by a lot of factors. In my case, the starting point, - and maybe the most important factor-
in the past 10 years, much attention in second language learning research has been devoted to composing hypotheses and theories explaining crucial factors that may develop foreign language (FL) listening comprehension. Researchers have argued that listening comprehension ability can be taught and trained by using appropriate strategies (Chien & Wei, 1997; Chien & Kao, 2004). Research shows that learners do have their own listening strategies, and there are some differences in what they do in order to comprehend the listening text (Oxford, 1990). To be more successful listeners, Bacon (1992) maintained that listeners should employ a
The change of paradigm from a traditional second language acquisition (henceforth SLA) perspective to multilingualism has contributed enormously to developing the field of multilingual research. However, findings derived from research on third language acquisition (henceforth TLA) and multilingual education has not been applied in the classroom setting. However, teacher training programmes devoted to deal with the multilingual factor in current language pedagogies have been absent in Europe (De Angelis, 2011) and have been dominated by the English-only policy (Otwinoswka, 2017). For this reason, teachers may have preconceived ideas about various issues in third language (henceforth L3) learning and teaching, especially in multilingual contexts.
Abstract: Pragmatic competence has become, especially in the last few decades, one of the issues that attracted attention in the field of language learning as an essential part of language competence. The realization that having a good command of linguistic knowledge in target language would not be enough to master the language has created the need to investigate the value and effect of pragmatic competence in language education. The following research paper aims at studying different articles related to pragmatic competence stressing on the Impact of Textbook-Based Input on L2 Learners' Pragmatic Comprehension. It will be approached both on the critical reading and critical thinking levels taking into consideration the pragmatic and the linguistic
It goes without saying that grammar teaching plays an essential role in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL). This opinion is based on the assumption that without a detailed knowledge of grammar, the language use will stall. Despite its importance, grammar teaching has gone through some debates for the decades. Before the 1970s, it was a common belief that grammar was a crucial part of the language teaching since no one would be able to reach the point where he/she communicates well without comprehending the grammatical rules of any language. This belief was then questioned by the conception that "knowledge of the grammatical system of the language was one of the main components which underlie the notion of communicative competence."
Over the past two decades “communicative language teaching” (CLT) has become a special important area of knowledge in language teaching methodology, but the extent to which the term covers a well-defined and uniform teaching method is highly questionable. From the beginning of CLT in the early 1970s, its proponents have developed a very wide range of variants that were only related to each other. In this paper I first look at the main characteristics of CLT to find out the roots and features of communicative language teaching and then I will conclude the paper by outlining the main principles of ‘principled communicative approach’(Zoltán Dörnyei, 2009). Nina Spada explains that “most second language educators agree that CLT is undergoing a transformation: one that includes
Domestication and foreignization are two translation strategies; they deal mainly with the extent to which a translator makes a text observe the cultural norms and values of the target language and culture. Hence, they supply both a linguistic and a cultural guidance. Debates over domestication and foreignization have existed for a relatively long time. However, the first person to term them as such was the American translation theorist Lawrence Venuti in 1995 in his book The Translator 's Invisibility: A History of Translation. Domestication seeks to reduce the peculiarity of a foreign text for target language readers, while foreignization seeks to have a target text intentionally go against and break target conventions by retaining foreign
There are arguments against and for translation as a language skill in the EFL classroom. First of all, translation as a language skill in the EFL classroom means using translation both as a skill and as an aid to learning a language. There are some arguments put forward against using translation in the classroom. These arguments could be dismissed by persuasive arguments for using translation in the classroom. Newson
Although for so many years the concept of phonology within the field of second language teaching seemed to be one of the less important ones, comparing its significance to concepts such as grammar or lexicon; recently, many different researches are being carried out and have already pointed out the importance of understanding and recognising such a concept as well as the need of including its teaching within the process of second language acquisition. Therefore and for the purpose of the present essay, it is essential to provide an accurate definition of the aforementioned term. Because of that and according to Omolara’s (2011:1) contributions, phonology would be generally defined as the linguistic field or competence that “is concerned with the regularities that govern the phonetic realisations of sounds in words of a language and that looks and tries to establish a system of sound distinctions relevant to a particular language.” Furthermore, this same author states that phonology is that part of linguistics that is focused on the study of how sounds differ and behave in particular speeches, speakers and also in particular contexts. However, although the previous definition provides such an appropriate approach to the concept, it is necessary to go a little further when talking about phonology. That is, it is quite essential to differentiate and have clearly in mind the different elements phonology deals with and is made up of.
Teaching English in India has witnessed several methodologies, pedagogies and practices directing to the development of communicative competence. The early modules on LSRW created a sense of awareness among teachers and learners. However, in the meantime, all these skills were almost forgotten from the ESL classes. Merely writing skill came up with growing needs of testing and evaluation of the subject knowledge. Even the English texts, despite the directives and objectives on the study of LSRW skills, appear only as the message tool not enabling the learner to concentrate upon the skills