Forest Fires In Indonesia

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40 million tropical forest is burnt down every year and over 9.7 million hectares of Indonesia in 1997-1998 occurred where 20 million people suffered from respiratory problems, with 19,800-48,100 premature mortalities (Heil, 2007), destruction of vegetations, atmospheric pollution and directly loss of habitat to many living organisms. In forests where fire is not a natural disturbance, it can have devastating impacts on forest vertebrates and invertebrates - not only killing them directly, but also leading to longer-term indirect effects such as stress and loss of habitat, territories, shelter and food. The loss of key organisms in forest ecosystems, such as invertebrates, pollinators and decomposers, can significantly slow the recovery rate of the forest (Boer, 1989). Two major events of 1997 and 1998 – the forest fires and smoke covering southeast Asia and the worst financial crisis since the beginning of President Suharto 's New Order – have made it safety to say that Indonesia has lost its invisibility (Winter, 1987). Much of the impact of fires could have been avoided if appropriate fire management systems were in place and policies relating to fire and land use were appropriate to deal with the situation. The fires affected a large portion of the Indonesian population causing economic hardship and disruption to commerce and short and long-term health problems. The smoke and haze generated by the fires also caused disruption and economic loss to many neighboring

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