The reduction of ethyne occures in an exceedinglyn ammonical solution of chromous chloride or in a solution of chromous salts in H2SO4. The selective catalytic hydrogenation of ethyne to ethylene, that yield over supported Group eight metal catalyst, is of nice industrial importance within the manufacture of ethyne by thermal transformation of organic compound. HALOGENATION AND HYDROHALOGENATION Halogens add to the triple bond.Fecl3 catalyzes the addition of cl2 to ethyne to produce 1,1,2,2-tetrachloromethane that is intermediate within the production of the commercial solvents 1,2-dichloroethylene,trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. ethyne will be chlorinated to 1,2 –dichloroethylene by directly using FeCl3 as a catalyst and a large excess ethyne trans-C2H2Cl2 is made from ethyne in solutions of CuCl2,CuCl and HCl. Br in solution or as a liquid adds to ethyne to create first 1,2-dibromoethylene and eventually tetrabromoethylene.
The original reaction done by Kolbe involved the formation of sodium phenoxide through the evaporation of a molar equivalent mixture of phenol and aqueous sodium hydroxide. The hygroscopic sodium phenoxide is then heated while carbon dioxide gas is passed over the molten salt. The mixture is then further heated to give the dianion of salicylic acid along with carbon dioxide and phenol both of which distill away from the mixture. Under these
1-Aryl-2,3,5-trimethylpyrazolium ionic liquids Melek Canbulat Özdemir1 and Beytiye Özgün* Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara, Turkey Abstract A series of new 1-aryl-2,3,5-trimethylpyrazolium ionic liquids were synthesized and characterized. The influence of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituent at the para-position of the phenyl ring (-NO2, -Cl, -Br, -H, -Me, -OMe) on the properties of synthesized salts were investigated by keeping alkyl part constant (methyl) for anions CH3SO3-, BF4- and PF6-. Thermal properties (melting points, thermal stabilities) and electrochemical stabilities (EW) of all salts were investigated. In addition, thermophysical properties ( density, viscosity and refractive index) of liquid salts at room temperature ( 2a,2b, 2d, 2e) were measured as a function of temperature. The results indicated that ordinarily electron-withdrawing substituents increases melting points of pyrazolium salts while –donating substituents decreases their melting points.
The goal of this lab was to prepare methyl m-nitrobenzoate using electrophilic aromatic substitution using nitration. The reaction used methyl benzoate with the acid catalyst as sulfuric acid. The mechanism for the nitration using methyl benzoate is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Benzene can only undergo substitution reactions that are called electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability to make substitutions to benzene is critical.
Luminol 5. Introduction In this experiment, luminol was prepared from 3-nitrophthalic acid and hydrazine under high heat. 3-nitrophthalic acid and hydrazine produced the precipitate 3-nitrophthalhydrazine, which was isolated using vacuum filtration. 3-nitrophthalhydrazine reacts with sodium dithionite to produce luminol. The solid luminol was isolated by vacuum filtration, then its chemiluminescence was demonstrated through its reaction with iron from a solution of potassium ferricyanide.
In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction occurred because the unknown nucleophile attacked the atom that was negatively charged, the alkyl bromide. Once the bromide left with an electron pair, the nucleophile replaced it and the result was a product of benzyl ether. 5. Melting point was used to determine the impurity of the synthesized product through comparing it’s melting range to the melting ranges of the given compounds. This was done through mixed melting points technique whereby two compounds, one that is known and one unknown, were mixed together.
Degradation study of Product 01 using Aqueous 1N NaOH solution .The mechanism is operated by hydrolysis. The hydroxyl group (-OH) of NaOH attacks an electrophilic carbon of >C=O group which an removal of tertiary Nitrogen gives 4-MBA and PD as by products. Degradation study of Product 02 using Aqueous 1N NaOH solution . The mechanism is operated by hydrolysis. The hydroxyl group (-OH) of NaOH attacks an electrophilic carbon of >N-C=O which as rearrangement gives carbonial .
3.8 Catalytic reduction of potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) The electron transfer reaction between hexacyanoferrate (III) and sodium borohydride results in the formation of hexacyanoferrate (II) ion and dihydrogen borate ion and this reaction is strongly catalyzed by AuNPs. The redox reaction is described as BH4- + 8 [Fe (CN)6]3-
The radiolytic means that the dissociation of molecules by ionizing radiation like (gamma rays, UV irradiation). In the fact, the gamma irradiation method one of the most interested method for preparing the polymer/metal nanocomposites. Because of the desired highly reducing radicals generated free from any byproduct, is the main advantage of gamma irradiation method for the synthesis of noble metallic nanoparticles. The primary and first radicals and upon gamma irradiation the molecules produced in water are  H2O→ eaq- (2.7), OH*(2.7) H*(0.6), H2(0.45), H2O2(0.7) Eq. (5) The G values G(eaq-), G (OH), which represented by the numbers in parentheses, for a given irradiated system