Thus it can be said that formative assessment supports the expectation that all children can learn to high levels and poor performance students who has the lack of ability and therefore become discouraged and unwilling can benefit from it. While feedback generally originates from a teacher, learners are also supposed to play an important role in formative assessment through self-evaluation. Two experimental research studies have shown that students who understand the learning objectives and assessment criteria and have opportunities to reflect on their work show greater improvement than those who do not (Fontana and Fernandes, 1994). Students with learning disabilities who are taught to use self-monitoring strategies related to their understanding of reading and writing tasks also show performance gains
It is a process of gathering and interpreting evidence to make judgments about student learning. It can be used to practice, plan curriculum, and to reflect on teachers teaching method. It also help us to provide information to parents, children and also administrators. Different ways of assessment are being used to allow the teacher to decide which instructional strategies are essential and which need to be changed. Formative, summative, traditional, alternate are ways of assessment.
They defined formative assessment as a concept that teachers use information from activities to determine the next steps in learning and teaching. In their viewpoints, the information from a formative assessment actually is used to adjust instruction ‘to meet students’ needs”. In other words, these adjustments were not only to be made in the instruction but they needed to work. Likewise, Brown (2004) also stated this point in his definition. He defines formative assessment as “evaluating students in the process of ‘forming’ their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them to continue that growth
GTA Presentation: Assessment What is assessment? Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning. (Huba and Freed, 2000) Assessment is the systematic basis for making inferences about the learning and development of students. It is the process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and using information to increase students’ learning and development. (Erwin, 1991) Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and
Schools and teachers assess students in numerous methods, for a diversity of reasons – ranging from extensive classifications of judging, sorting and ranking, to more subtle explanations, determining students’ needs and level of understanding. Educators have distinguished a very strong difference concerning summative assessment and formative assessment; however the distinction is believed to be modified between how data is generated and how assessments are used. This paper will focus on formative assessments, and the difference between formal formative and informal formative assessments. Proceeding to the observation on how assessments can be used in the classroom effectively, the aspects of assessments and procedures to follow. Concluding
Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick (2006) indicate that “formative assessment can promote the development of capacities and attitudes used in lifelong learning. Assessment-centred or student-centred learning environments also emphasize congruence between learning goals and what is assessed”. Formative assessment is going on all an ideal opportunity to give feedback on what understudies are figuring out how to distinguish accomplishment and areas for further work. Additionally, for the educator or teachers to evaluate effectiveness of instructing or teaching and provide a feed forward or to centre feasible arrangements. “Good feedback practice is not only about providing accessible and usable information that helps students improve their learning, but it is also about providing good information to teachers” (Nicol and Macfarlane, 2006, p. 214).
ASSESSMENT OUTLINE – KINDERGARTEN Assessment is an important component in the teaching and learning process because it helps us measure whether students are achieving at levels commensurate with their potential. Assessment helps us measure student progress and attainment. It also allows us to differentiate instruction based on these results. It is essential that there is a diverse approach to assessment. In order to achieve a thorough knowledge of student achievement, it is essential to vary the type of assessment.
In the contemporary perspective, formative assessment feedback is used to improve learning and performance by correcting what is wrong and to encourage pointing out things a student had not discerned. This is to say that formative assessment intended to contribute to learning by integrating a feedback cycle regarding the students’ current performance. This requires summative assessment, the judgment of a students’ mastery of content against a criteria or standard at a certain point to take place prior to feedback being able to be given. This, therefore, causes a summative assessment to be necessary to all assessments since judgment according to standards or criteria is needed to occur so feedback on how knowledge or work can be improved is required. This interdependency allows for many assessments to be both simultaneously formative and summative in nature.
Significance of the Study The crucial role of assessment in teaching and learning has been well recognized by many researchers. For instance, Anderson (1990) puts forward that assessment plays a critical and leading role in pedagogy. In other words, assessing studentsʼ achievement and learning is an essential prerequisite for every educational system. The view is echoed by Black and William (1998b) who remark that assessment is integral to learning. Likewise, Brown (2004) states “assessment is an integral part of teaching-learning cycle” (p. 16).
Assessment plays an integral role in the teaching-learning cycle (DES & NCAA, 1999). This comprehensive process is a fundamental accountability measure for students and teachers in Physical Education (P.E). Ultimately, assessment in the P.E. environment should serve the purpose of enhancing and enriching the learning experience for students. It should provide them with feedback on their skill progression, motivate them to improve and contribute greatly to their overall development.