Differentiation, with respect to instruction, means tailoring it to meet individual needs of the students. Teachers can differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. Teachers differentiate the four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. (Tomlinson 2000). Differentiated instruction can be known as an organizing framework in teaching and learning which calls for a major restructuring in the classroom and syllabus, if done in the proper way, its benefits will transgress the costs.
Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning. Generally, students judge their own work against a given criteria, provide information on how they can improve on that work in future and then grade their work. When the word “formative” is used in conjunction with assessment or evaluation, it connotes an improvement process while the word “summative” is used to describe a decision making process. 2.6 Distinctions between Self-assessment and Self-evaluation Assessment and Evaluation are necessary and complementary in education. Educators use assessment and evaluation to help their students build lifelong learning skills.
To apply formative assessment effectively in the classroom, teachers have to know about formative assessment principles so that they can optimize the opportunities for gathering evidence. In so doing, it helps improve students’ learning process. Black and William (1998a) “set out four main headings for formative assessment practice: sharing learning goals, questioning, self/ peer assessment and feedback”. o Sharing learning goals: teachers give students an opportunity to get involved in what they are learning through discussing and deciding the criteria for success, which they can then use to recognize proof of improvement. Hence, information about learning objectives as well as success criteria needs to be presented in clear, explicit language which students can understand.
The major objectives of this research were to examine the association between students’ thinking styles and the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between teachers’ thinking styles and the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior, investigate the effect of teachers’ interpersonal behavior on students’ thinking styles in learning, and study the contributions of students’ thinking styles to learning achievement. This study found that students’ and teachers’ thinking styles could predict the preferred learning environments constructed by teacher interpersonal behavior, the learning activities provided the opportunities to train students in the use of their teachers’ preferred thinking styles, students’ thinking styles and learning achievement were related. Furthermore, the results of this study showed that students ' thinking styles changed in all classes of experimental groups, with teachers ' teaching in teaching being the main factor
It occurs as a part of everyday teaching and learning and uses information from ongoing assessment to shape classroom teaching and learning. Assessment as learning puts the students in active role as learners, using assessment information to self-assess, regulate and monitor their learning progress. Assessment is important for several reasons: 1. Assessment result provide qualitative information that helps faculty determine how they might improve courses and/or programs through changes in curriculum, teaching methodologies, course materials or other areas. When integrated into the planning cycle for curriculum development and review, assessment results can provide powerful rationale for securing support for curricular and other changes.
“Formative assessment is a process used by teacher and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust on going teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes (Caroline Wylie and Christine Lyon, 2013).” I believe that formative assessments are essential for both students and teachers to inform instruction within lessons and they confirm how much students know about the lesson and how teacher can support to engage in their learning. I approve that asking better questions affords students an opportunity for deeper thinking and provides teachers to know the levels of students’ understanding. In my class, when I started the lesson with inquiring based questions by eliciting learners’ level of background knowledge, the students promptly gave feedback or response quickly to me. It was so notable that I could make
USE QUESTIONING AND FEEDBACK TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS UNIT 2, 6.4 LITERATURE REVIEW Harlen explains that there are two main reasons for assessing students: to help their learning and to report on what they have learned. He argues that researchers typically discuss these reasons as different purposes for assessment and “mistakenly as different kinds of assessments that are somehow opposed to one another” (Harlen, 2007b). How can they achieve the aim? When learners know and understand these principles, the quality of learning will improve. Sharing this information with my learners will promote ownership of the learning aims and a sense of shared responsibility between me the teacher and learner to achieve those aims.
The object of learning refers to what the students need to learn to achieve the desired learning objectives. There are two aspects of object of learning pointed out by Lo (2012): the specific aspect (refers to the subject matter, knowledge or skill that we wish students to learn) and the general (the capabilities that can be developed through the learning of the specific aspect). The object of learning is dynamic, even though teachers will have an intended object of learning, teachers need to adjust according to students’ responses during the course of teaching (Lo, 2012). There are three differentiation of object of: the intended, the enacted and the lived object of learning (Marton, Runesson & Tsui, 2004). The intended object of learning refers to the intended learning outcome of the lesson.
Diagnostic assessment establishes a baseline for standards within the course, allows student to determine their preparedness for their current learning activities and also permit teachers to adjust their introductory activities so that majority of the learners are able to participate at a meaningful level. Formative assessment intends to improve the teaching and learning process through the feedback it gathers. Summative assessment is used primarily for progression and certification purposes. Integrative assessment describes specific types of task with specific outcomes and reward mechanism. The primary purpose of this assessment is to provide feedback (judgement) on the learner’s ability to be self-regulated.