Assessment and evaluation is an instrument that is used to measure the performance of teachers and students. It is an integral part of teaching and learning process. Assessment aids in decision making as it determines whether or not the goal of education are being met. It plays a major role in how students learn, their motivation to learn and how teachers teach. It also enables one to think: “are we teaching what we think we are teaching?” “Are students learning what they are supposed to be learning?” These are relevant question that one should ask when it comes to assessment; therefore, this essay will highlight on the role of assessment in teaching and learning.
This sign supplements that theory well because to succeed in schooling, you must do all of those things in order to apply yourself the right way. This theory connects with PST numbers 1b, 2a, and 2b. These PSTs include are indicators for how the children are doing on their work inside of the classroom and making sure there is reinforcement within the classroom to help motivate the child. The last principle in the behavioral learning theory is “learning results from the effects of stimuli on responses” (Fetsco and McClure, BLT #3). When planning a lesson, the teacher must “provide the stimuli needed to produce the desired learning” (Fetsco and McClure, BLT #3).
HighScope teachers closely observe the students so they know when it is appropriate for them to intervene, helping the student learn more from what the child already confidently knows. When a teacher, or more advanced child enters into this zone, teaching the particular child, it helps him/her move to the next level in his/her development. (HighScope, n.d,
Piaget and Maslow: Teaching the whole child Exceptional educators keep their fingers on the pulse of what their students need, in order to teach them effectively. Examining Piaget and Maslow’s theories, and applying them to the classroom will facilitate achieving this goal. Considering Piaget’s focus on development, and Maslow’s prioritization of human needs, one can integrate these ideas into classrooms and lesson plans that are optimized for student success. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development Piaget asserts, children are born with inherited scripts, called schema, these schema are building blocks for cognitive development. As a child grows, he acquires more of these building blocks; moreover, these building blocks become more complex as the child progresses through different stages in development (Huitt, Hummel 2003).
Explain why teachers should adopt “ differentiated instruction “ in class” The cornerstone of differentiation is active planning, the teacher plans instruction strategically to meet learners where they are and to offer multiple avenues through which they can acces, understand and apply learning. In differentiating lessons, teachers must take into account not only what they are teaching ( content) but also whom they are teaching (individual that is students). They need to know the varying readiness level , interests and learning profiles of each of their students and the design learning options to fit into these factors. Differentiated instruction means giving students choices about how to learn and how to demonstrate their learning. It is a way in which the teacher anticipates and responds to variety of student’s needs.
1.5 Kohn’s Student Directed Learning Theory Kohn’s student-directed learning theory is an approach to the classroom management which may be particularly effective in the modern classroom environment. Student-directed learning will keep students motivated and teaches them to cooperate with each other sharing responsibilities and functions within their community. Kohn believes that the ideal classroom emphasizes on curiosity and cooperation above all, and that the student’s curiosity should determine what is taught. "Skillful educators tap students ' natural curiosity and desire to become competent. In a learning environment, teachers want to help students engage with what they are doing to promote deeper understanding" (Kohn, 1997c).
Competency 1 As a teacher, I understand this competency to mean that I must be aware of human development processes, and use this information to plan instruction and continue valuation that will inspire students and cater to their individual developmental and needs. I will need to know normal stages of cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development from early childhood through the completion of twelfth-grade. Being a teacher, I will need to identify developmental differences that characterize students and consider developmental variation for instructional planning, along with effective learning experiences and assessments. I must understand how physical changes, along with social and emotional changes can disturb a student’s progress
This tells them how they will be assessed throughout the class. Step 4: Instruction, giving students input by summarizing definition 's and demonstrating basic learning skills. Also, demonstrating the application of concepts and skills with a demonstration; it 's better for the students if the teacher demonstrates. Step 5: Checking for understanding, this step is a guiding practice to have learner’s do exercises effectively and monitoring informal or observational assessment as previously demonstrating in step 3 and 4. additional assessments determine needs for re-teaching which makes the content of the lesson and its objective to stimulate the minds of the learners. Step 6: Closure, reinforcement to major points learned and help organize the students learning and cue’s them to know they have arrived at an important part of the lesson.
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
The content: knowledge skills and attitude we want children to learn; differentiating content requires that students are pretested so the teacher can identify the students who do not require direct instruction. The process: varying learning activities / strategies to provide appropriate methods for students to explore the concepts; important to give students alternative paths to manipulate the ideas embedded within the concept (different grouping methods, graphic organizers, maps, diagrams, or charts) (Thwaites 2017) in class power point presentation. The product :varying the complexity of the product that students create to demonstrate mastery of the concepts; students below grade level may have different performance expectations than students