In other words, they often used the type of assessment that mainly focuses on the ability of the students to arrive or produce or demonstrate their own learning. They rarely used the assessment tools that focus on the product their students were able to come up with. There are many reasons why teachers are reluctant to use formative assessment in their classroom. Time shortage and large class size are one of the main reasons that teachers mentioned in their interview. Moreover, teachers decided their assessment types basing on its convenience for management.
1-3-2-1 Formal Assessment Formal assessment is performed under special classroom conditions. It is evaluated by giving grades to each student’s work. There are four main types of test: Placement test, Achievement test, Proficiency test, and Diagnostic test. A placement test is needed to place learners in their right classes according to their levels “The aim is to produce groups which are homogeneous in level that will use institutional and teacher time most effectively.” (Harris & McCann, 1994, p. 29). It has to be noted in this type of assessment that it should be performed at the beginning of the year or the course as its function is to put the learners in their right classes.
Frequently, assessment methods are selected based on their objectivity, accuracy, or convenience. However, assessment methods are appropriate for some uses and inappropriate for others. In assessing student achievement, it is necessary to match between desired learning goals and the types of assessment method used. When teacher is eager to find students ability to develop and organize ideas and write a well-integrated composition as learning goals, multiple-choice test would be poor choice and other form such as essay writing would be better one. The third principle is that comprehensive assessment requires a variety of assessment method.
For a teacher to be successful assessors, a deep understanding of assessments needs to be developed, and the following questions are able to be answered: why do assessments; when to do assessments; and how to assess in ways that have an impact on students learning in a positive way. Once a teacher has the knowledge to make meaningful decisions based on these questions, assessments that are planned, designed and implemented can be used to provide formative, meaningful information and support learning
A key characteristic is that the assessment information used by both teacher and pupils to modify their work in order to make it more effective”. In a similar vein, Tunstall and Gipps (1996) wrote “formative assessment means teachers using their judgments of children knowledge or understanding to feedback into the teaching process and to determine for individual children whether to re-explain the task/concept, to give further practice on it or move on the next stage”. (cited in Harry Torrance and John Pryor, 1998). In addition, Black & Wiliam (1998) adopted a more restrictive definition by limiting the term to assessment conducted while learning was taking place. They defined formative assessment as a concept that teachers use information from activities to determine the next steps in learning and teaching.
Which makes this type of assessment an excellent way of evaluating a student’s knowledge of a subject matter. Authentic assessments should be tied to real-world contexts and require the student to “do” the subject. For example after a Math lesson on telling time to have the students complete a “time” worksheet. Tell each child to write their beginning time and once they
In a general term, they emphasized the process in which information is collected during learning. From that, teachers can take some actions to help improve teaching and learning. However, there are also differences among these definitions. For example, unlike other researchers, Black also mentions the relationship between teachers and students. In his viewpoint, formative assessment can relate to the close relationship between the teachers and their students.
Teachers using formative assessment meet the students’ need by using different approach and techniques such as feedback, questioning and scaffolding. Formative assessment promotes the goals of lifelong learning, including higher levels of student achievement, greater equity of student outcomes, and improved learning to learn skills. Formative assessment methods have been important to raising overall levels of student
If you want to change student learning then change the methods of assessment. (Brown, 1997: 7) in Rust (2002) The impact of assessment in student learning. Why do we assess? Assessment supports the growth and development of learners. According to King, F.J., Goodson, L., & Rohani, F., (1998), learners become active participants in learning and assessment, understand the criteria that are used for assessment activities, are involved in self-evaluation, set individual targets for themselves, reflect on their learning
Teachers can reflect on each student’s level of achievement, as well as on specific inclinations of the group, to customize their teaching plans., after receiving this information. Assessment is used as a research to find out as much as they can about what their students know, and what confusions, and prejudgment, or gaps they might have. Continuing assessment provides day-to-day feedback about the learning and teaching process. Assessment can reinforce the efficacy of teaching and learning. It also encourages the understanding of teaching as a productive process that evolves over time with feedback and input from students.