2.2.3. Formative assessment principles To apply formative assessment effectively in the classroom, teachers have to know about formative assessment principles so that they can optimize the opportunities for gathering evidence. In so doing, it helps improve students’ learning process. Black and William (1998a) “set out four main headings for formative assessment practice: sharing learning goals, questioning, self/ peer assessment and feedback”. o Sharing learning goals: teachers give students an opportunity to get involved in what they are learning through discussing and deciding the criteria for success, which they can then use to recognize proof of improvement.
Issue on Effective Teaching Introduction Inevitably, there are many techniques, skills and practices that can make a teacher effective. Being an effective teacher signifies allowing an environment that enables students to learn in the classroom to their best abilities and potential. According to Harry Wong, there are three major characteristics of an effective teacher, which includes having positive expectations for students’ success, excelling at classroom management and designing lessons for mastery. Effective teaching is defined as providing the necessary learning environment and learning experiences that enable all students to learn through making meaning from experience (Education
Holistic teaching focuses on preparing the learner to meet any challenges they may face in life and within a work setting. They can learn about themselves, develop resilience and develop social and emotional development. A learner who feels confident and valued will be more able to absorb new knowledge and apply to real work settings and is more likely to continue their studies when they see it affecting them in a meaningful way. If as an assessor you are mindful to the learner as an individual and take into account their learning style and abilities it aids you in tailoring your teaching manner and methods that give all the best chance of success. It is good to show they are being stretched and challenged and evidence this in their feedback to aid their professional
(Bransford, Brown, and Cocking, 1999) Individuals acquire a skill much more rapidly if they receive feedback about the correctness of what they have done. One of the most important roles for assessment is the provision of timely and informative feedback to students during instruction and learning so that their practice of a skill and its subsequent acquisition will be effective and efficient. (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, and Glaser, 2001) Types of
To achieve this goal they should become familiar with target culture through authentic materials. Moreover, teachers should raise students’ awareness of fluent speaking as a vital fact to achieve their goals. Second, teachers should improve feelings of success in students to enhance their tendency to do tasks. Third, teachers should make students familiar with particular goal of the course and clarify the aim of each task and help them to reach that goal. The teachers should recognize each learner’s goal and integrate all students’ goals to set some common goals and work together to accomplish them.
The answer to the question how to evaluate heavily depends on what should be evaluated. Teachers must ensure that teaching, learning, assignments, assessment and feedback are constructively aligned, and demonstrate the evidence of student’s achievement of the intended learning outcomes. Figure 1 shows how learning outcomes, evidence of achievement, assessment criteria and feedback linked with each other. Hence, based on how well learning outcomes have been achieved by a learner, assessment along with the feedback should be given to a student. In the following paragraphs we will discuss various formats and types of assessments.
They are thinking about their learning, and they're aware of how their minds are working to construct this new knowledge. They're using language to effectively communicate with one another, and they're learning in context as they engage in activities that teachers have carefully designed to be relevant to students in order to increase their motivation. We can apply these elements of constructivist theory right into our classroom teaching. Here are five principles of constructivist teaching identified by Brooks and Brooks. As we go through these principles, we'll also relate them to competency based education, both in terms of the iNACOL design principles and elements identified by CompetencyWorks.
Bloom’s Taxonomy provides an important framework for teachers to use to focus on higher order thinking. By providing a hierarchy of levels, this taxonomy can assist teachers in designing performance tasks, making questions for discussing with learners, and providing feedback on student work. This resource is divided into different levels each with Keywords that exemplify the level and questions that focus on that same critical thinking level. Questions for Critical Thinking can be used in the classroom to develop all levels of thinking within the cognitive domain. The results will be improved attention to detail, increased comprehension and prolonged problem solving skills.
Also, by providing students with instant feedback they can more actively engage the learners in classroom activities and shape their future learning. Formative assessment is now described in literature as ongoing or continuous assessment, the primary goal of which is to help students develop. It encompasses all kinds of classroom interactions, short quizzes and progress test, interviews, student presentations and projects, written assignments, to name just a few (Shepard, 2006). Students are further encouraged to monitor their own work by reflecting upon the learning goals established by the teacher and trying to identify the
Teachers should give detailed and specific examples before moving to conceptual concepts by way of straightforward and simple steps at a stride in measure with the learning aptitudes of students. Teachers may coach new ideas from different outlook and mindset by various paths so that students can understand the concept through relevant and relicated examples . Teachers should stimulate students’ lively participation by more repeated use of teaching aids, activities and excercises . Teachers should also make use of latest information techniques and all the teaching material available to help students understand the key elements