This led to the objectification of humans for scientific investigation and explanation. (Thornton, 2014, p. 3) Michel Foucault talks about three modes of objectification of subject, the first being 'dividing practices '. By this he means, the isolation or separation of people who are conceived as being normal or pathological. But, the perception of 'normal ' is subjective and is mostly how the majority population in power conceives it. Foucault talks about hospital, clinics, prisons etc as the institutions used for this.
In his book Distinction: A social critique of the Judgment of Taste (Bourdieu 1984), he conducted extensive research into the taste and preference of different social groups in France in the1960’s, known as the bourgeoises. The role of them had been taken over by “cultural intermediaries” who were certain to have “the importance in deterring the taste patterns for the rest of the society” (Strinati 1995:219). In other words he distinctively describes ways in which classes consume cannot simply be explained by economic inequalities, naming this disposition as “Cultural Capital”. The concept of taste is intractably linked with the notion of discriminations, social hierarchies and making judgements of accepting or rejecting which is a selective preferment. For instance, Bourdieu, who follows a ‘conventional tripartite classification’ refers to the universe of taste as legitimate taste (the taste for legitimate artefacts), middle taste which combines nor minor works in major art forms (‘profit in distinction’) and popular taste represented by choice of ‘light’” (Llyods, page 159).
Little (2011)elucidated that Marxist’s view on social inquiry is underpinned in a summation of many cross-cutting and different and processes, structures and institutions driven by the meaningful actions of persons, within given material and cultural institutions that bear contingent and sometimes accidental relations to each other. Marxists think that methods try to focus on the world plurality. Marxist and Positivism share similarities as the critical realist approach view by Marxism adhere also to have empiricism, unity of science and causal laws. Empiricism emphasizes that the appropriate way to understand the social world is by focusing on both theoretical thinking and reasoning and empirical
Dr. Merton expanded on the work of French sociologist Émile Durkheim on anomie with his theory on deviance and social strain. Robert K Merton argued that a society may be set up in a way that promotes too much deviance. He believed that when socially accepted goals and social norms place pressure on individual to conform, they force the person to opt to work within the societally defined structure or be a member of deviant social group in attempt to achieve those goals. Merton termed this theory strain theory. Merton believed that the societies do not provide adequate means of achieving cultural goals.
Foucault also challenges by questioning the political and scientific theories which act to turn individuals(subjects) into object. (what is objectification of the subject) According to Foucoult there are three modes of objectification of subject. The first mode of objectification of subject is 'dividing principle' where a certain group of people exhibiting differences from majority are given a label and are objectified by that label.It can be both social and spatial. In this mode of objectification the subject is given both social and personal identity. For example - a criminal or mad person who are now indentified as the label given to them by society and are seperated from the normal due to it.
The recurring themes of obscenity and sexuality in Miller's Tropic of Cancer, as shown above, play a significant role in Foucault's discursive theory, too. According to Foucault, a discourse is a group or system of statements in a society. Here, societal procedures control such discourses to enable and ensure the proliferation of disciplines and institutions prevalent in a society (cf. Hawthorn 87-9). In his analysis of Western discourses, language helps Foucault to detect social limits of existence.
The consciousness of a nation is based on the collective and individual consciousness of her citizens and they are subsequently the total result of the cultural background, historical factors, heritage and tradition, the religious inheritance and so many other associated aspects. The consciousness of the nation can be corrupted by the influence of the nearby culture or imposed culture. This inadequately affects the psychological level of an individual, thus disturbing the national consciousness. Frantz Fanon, a psychiatrist from Martinique, analyses the mental changes that occurred in the colonized people in his work Black Skin White Masks. He emphasises that colonized people are undergoing a psychological transformation, which he called ‘two-dimension’.
Her artificiality is reinforced by parents who share the same beliefs as well as those who see her as an object to be despised for going against the social grain. Plasticity enables people to see themselves as malleable and changing with their subject and object selves interacting in the process. Amour-propre helps explain the tendency of publicizing private connoted content in new media usage through similarities in the main end plus the use of the technology of the self and plasticity so the self can insightfully study itself as the subject and the object. Rousseau’s
This essay consists of the concepts of punishment and discipline, given by Michel Foucault. It also consists of the critic of his theory. Michel Foucault was a French philosopher and a historian. He was involved in the structural and post-structural movement. He also has had a strong influence on the humanistic and scientific display.
Matsumoto et al. (2007), however, make a distinction between these two terms. They view adaptation as “the process of altering one’s behaviour to fit in with a changed environment or circumstances, or as a response to social pressure” , whereas adjustment is described as “the subjective experiences that are associated with and result from attempts at adaptation” (p.77). I have used the term adjustment as the overwhelming body of research in cross-cultural studies have preferred this term in their models and frameworks including Black et al., 1991, Aycan,