The mechanical properties of concrete determined in the laboratory include compression strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural tensile strength. The influence of partial replacement of fine aggregates by copper slag on the compressive strength, split tensile strength on cylinders and flexural strength of prisms has been evaluated. The test results showed that there is a possibility of use of copper slag as fine aggregate in
Sand which is locally available and is free from any organic impurities is used. Which is further passed through IS sieve of 4.75 and retained on 150 micron IS sieve is used in the making of the concrete. The physical properties of fine aggregate like fineness modulus, specific gravity and Bulk density are tested in accordance with IS S.no Test Observations 1. Fineness Modulus 2.73 2. Specific Gravity 2.65 3.
SUITABILITY OF CRUSHER SAND ON CO2 MOULDING PROCESS PrabhuShankar.Na, P.Karunakaranb a PG Scholar, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Erode b Assistant Professor, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Erode Abstract The silica sand as a single source of supply for construction and foundry applications has lead to the depletion of the resource and makes it availability doubtful in the future. Thus the increased consumption rate of silica sand has lead to increase in price of foundry sand and we are in need to search for other resources which suitably replaces silica sand in foundry industry to meet the industrial demands. The “Crusher Sand” that is the available by-product from the manufacture of construction aggregates,
On the other hand it is also comprised of heavy metals and pathogens which may pollute the soil and contaminate food products (McGrath, et al., 1994). Also, the biological content of sewage sludge tends to reduce amount of soil biomass and alter the soil biochemical activity (Häni, Siegenthaler, & Candinas, 1995). Such negative impacts have raised public concerns (Inguanzo, et al., 2002). As a consequence tighter regulations have been established to restrict the implementation of such practices such as the EU Council Directive 86/278/EEC which encourages the right application of sludge in agriculture but at the same time seeks to protect the environment and alternatively human’s health (Kirchmann, Börjesson, Kätterer, & Cohen, 2016). These various methods posses risks to the environment and health to a greater or lesser extent.
This recycled wastes materials that enters disposal sites are providing the needed raw materials for industries. Affirming the recycling method is the best, effective and efficient method of managing solid waste according to the industries. Recycled waste materials will be converted from a useless material into valuable resources, capable of generating employment and bringing in economic returns. Recycling can conserve natural resources and yields environmental, financial and social returns, it conserved energy, prevention of pollution and the expansion of economic. More importantly that a small amount of, what is to be dispose contains raw valuable resources.
Steel slag is a steel-making waste from the steel industry and is reused as it is in many engineering fields, including transportation and highway engineering, environmental engineering, and geotechnical engineering. It is used as either an additional or substitute material in road construction, filter or soil stabilizer in these cases. Indeed, soil stabilization using steel slag is popular in Europe and Asian country as a result of a concerted effort towards reducing wastes and optimizing resources. Steel slag can be produced from two different processes, namely, from the conversion of iron into molten iron and from the manufacturing process to modify the components of molten iron in making strong steel. The byproducts of the processes can
The present trend in increased agricultural products has made the disposal of agricultural wastes a chronic problem. Effective utilization of these wastes will give rise to a large number of useful by-products. Proper utilization of agro wastes can offer immense opportunities in improving the economic conditions of the in reducing environmental pollution in the countryside. This paper reviews a few important treatments of most of the frequently encountered agro-residues with a view to recover the chemical wealth present therein farmers and create new employment avenues among the rural masses. Further, this will go a long way.
Poor compaction and improper curing will lead to porous concrete with low strength and high permeability. The hardened state properties apart from strength are impermeability, impact strength , fatigue strength, and good acoustic and thermal characteristics. Concrete production is the process of mixing together the various ingredients—water, aggregate, cement, and any additives—to produce concrete. The batching , mixing, transportation, placing, compaction, finishing and curing are very complimentary
Review of Related Literature 2.1 Introduction Soil is an important source of raw materials such as clay, sand, gravel and minerals. It is a non- renewable natural resource with potentially rapid degradation rates and extremely slow reformation and regeneration process(Mwangi,2007). Sand is a cheap and heavy resource consisting of very small pieces of rocks and minerals, a result of weathering that forms beaches and deserts. River sand is extracted from riverbeds and banks; unscientific mining has led to the degradation and ecological imbalance around mining areas(Saviour,2012). Gaddard (2007) realised that decisions on where to mine, how much and how often requires definition of "reference state" and sand budget.