Overall, the important aspects of Locke’s goal theory are: 1. The setting of difficult goals, 2. Participation in goal setting and 3. Feedback on performance with guidance and advice. The goal theory of motivation is similar to the concept of management by objectives where the assumption is that employees can be motivated by manager setting setting specific objectives.
The responsibility of leader is to articulate what behaviors are required and what will be the rewards for accomplisher and also to provide feedback for subordinate’s behavior. Rewards are awarded to those followers who comply with behavior requirements. In transactional leadership, leaders have the aptitude to evaluate the needs and aspirations of employees in exchange of performance of them and clearly exhibit the ways in which these needs and requirements can be fulfilled (Jung, 2000-2001). In transactional leadership, rewards and discipline are administered according to adherence or deviation from instructions. It is reported that interests of employees, who auspiciously succeeded in fulfilling the commitments of their leaders or organization, are accommodated by giving contingent incentives, admiration and promises (Bass, 2000).
Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality. Leadership is a process by which a person can direct, guide and influence others in the accomplishment of a given goal. It also has the potential of the manager to influence the behaviour of other people and make the subordinates work with zeal and confidence. It can also be the human factor that binds the group together in achieving a specific goal. Leadership is an interpersonal process, the manager guiding the subordinates in achieving the goal.
Concern for People: this is the degree to which a leader considers team members ' needs, interests and areas of personal development when deciding how best to accomplish a task. 2. Concern for Results: this is the degree to which a leader emphasizes concrete objectives, organizational efficiency and high productivity when deciding how best to accomplish a task. (the mind tools editorial team,
A manager 's job is to coach or guide workers to choose the best paths for reaching their goals. Based on the goal‐setting theory, leaders engage in different types of leadership behaviors depending on the nature and demands of a particular situation. A leader 's behavior is acceptable to subordinates when viewed as a source of satisfaction. He or she is motivational when need satisfaction is contingent on performance; this leader facilitates, coaches, and rewards effective performance. Path‐goal theory identifies several leadership styles: • Achievement‐oriented.
Consideration 2. Initiating structure When engaging in consideration behaviour, the leader is concerned with the subordinates feeling and respects subordinates ideas. The leader- subordinate relationship is characterized by mutual trust, respect and two way communication. And on the other hand initiating structure behaviour the leader clearly the leader- subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected from them. The leader establishes channels of communication and determines the methods for accomplishing the group’s task.
Transactional leadership. Transactional leadership is described as managerial leadership because it emphasizes the supervisory role, as well as the organization and group’s performance (Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). Transactional leadership is also described as an exchange of the leader’s interest and followers’ expectations involving commitment, respect, and trust (Paracha, Qamar, Mirza, Hassan, & Waqas, 2012). Transactional leadership has been defined as a leader creating clear structures and rewards employees will receive for following orders (Ruggieri & Scaffidi Abbate, 2013). Transactional leadership, however, was described as persuading and influencing followers by setting targets and promising rewards for preferred performance (Stoffers & Mordant-Dols, 2015).
Different scholars identified various kinds of leadership styles that affect the job performance, satisfaction and learning and development of subordinates. Warrick, D.D (1981) cited that there are no doubt variables other than a leader’s style that affect employee performance and development but leadership style plays a significant role and not to be underestimated. An awareness of leadership styles and their consequences are very important because it may either facilitate or inhabit skill development. The major theories on leadership are the traits, leadership styles and contingency theories. Out of those, leadership styles and contingency theories dominate the current literature on leadership.
To have the team working towards the same goal, the mission and vision should be communicated clearly. So that employees know what they are doing and what is expected from them, giving their best efforts. Delegation relieves the leader from exhaustion and stress. It is a sign of strength in leadership and encourages employees live to expectations. It also helps to assess which strength and weakness employees have, which is essential to differentiate which tasks they will fit best.
Before he can remake his society, his society must make him. (p.31) Spencer posits that it is the societal circumstances and the subsequent experiences gained that shape and mold leaders. Critics of the great man theory that the theory is flawed at its core owing to the fact that, if it was that great leaders are born with these traits all persons possessing these traits should in turn be in a position of leadership. Later on, in the 1930s and 1940s, the Trait theory on leadership emerged and is believed to be a gateway into the behavioral approach taken by subsequent scientific research into leadership. The trait theory follows the school of thought that leaders are born and not made.