The ventricles then contract, the valves between the atria and ventricles close and the blood is pumped into the aorta and pulmonary artery. Explain the term blood pressure and describe the role it plays in the circulatory system. Describe the conditions high and low blood pressure. According to Blood Pressure UK, when your heart beats it pumps blood around your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels.
These receive blood directly from the heart. These are the Aorta and the pulmonary artery. The Aorta transports blood from the heart to the rest of the body tissues, whereas the pulmonary artery transports blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. The arteries need to be elastic because the diameter is small compared to the actual size of the artery. When the heart contracts and pours blood in these arteries, the walls need to stretch to house the blood.
Total lung capacity (TLC) is the measure of how much air is in the lungs after a breath. Then the amount of tidal volume (TV) is how much air a person takes in during inspiration. An individual exhales naturally, but can also make themselves breath faster. When an individual forces an expiration it can be measured by forced expiratory volume (FCV), which is how much air a person forces out during their breath. (RV) which is known as residual volume is how much air remains in the lungs after a forced expiration.
The walls of the alveoli actually share a membrane with the capillaries in which oxygen and carbon dioxide move freely between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen molecules attach to red blood cells, which travel back to the heart. At the same time, the carbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are blown out of the body with the next exhalation." (Dugdale, 2012) Ventilation is another fact because if this not happen our body will be full of carbon dioxide and the oxygen will be down. Many times when the people here ventilation they get confused and think that they are talking about respiration that is not correct, is correct say that ventilation is similar to breathing but no to respiration, they are different "Movements of the ribs, rib muscles and diaphragm allow air into and out of the lungs.
CO2 is then expelled and O2 enters the bloodstream, from there the re-oxygenated blood flows into organs and tissues expelling CO2 from and replacing it with oxygen. The blood finally pumps back to the atrium where the process begins again. (University of Waikato) (See fig.5 ) In humans, blood enters the heart from the posterior and anterior veins vena cava which carries de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood flows into the right ventricle and through the tricuspid valve which shuts when the ventricle is full. The blood exits the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and then into the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
Investigating factors that affect heart rate Introduction Respiration is a process in the body that is highly required for the body in order for it to stay in proper and normal working condition. During this process the body takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide out of the body and into the atmosphere. Respiration is split into two different categories which are aerobic and anaerobic respiration. These two forms of respiration are both used in producing and storing cellular energy but the slight difference is that with aerobic respiration oxygen is taken into our lungs and works with glucose in order to make energy. In other words energy is released in cells by breaking down of food in the
The function of the pulmonary artery is to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs from the heart to become oxygenated. The pressure inside the pulmonary artery is very low, although blood here is at a slightly higher pressure than the blood in the pulmonary vein, and this is reflected as the walls of the artery are significantly thinner than the walls of a corresponding artery, for example, the aorta. The walls of the pulmonary artery contain a large amount of elastic fibres in order to maintain the shape of the artery. The lumen of the artery is smaller than that of the vein which has a large lumen. This relates to the pressure difference between the two blood vessels as the smaller lumen of the artery allows for a greater pressure of blood.
The primary function of the respiratory system is gas exchange, which consists of movement of oxygen into the body and removal of carbon dioxide. To achieve this goal, respiration can be divided and four major functions. First of all, we have pulmonary ventilation, which means the inflow and outflow of air between the atmosphere and the lung alveoli; second, the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs between the alveoli and the blood; after this, these gases are transported in the blood and body fluids to and from the tissue cells. Finally, all these steps are controlled and regulated by respiratory center and receptors. (GUYTON, A.C.; HALL, J.E.
• Systole is when the cardiac muscle contracts to push out the blood from the chamber they are in it. During ventricular systole the blood pressure increases in arteries. • Diastole is when the cardiac muscle is relaxed allowing allow the chamber to fill with blood. During ventricular diastole the blood pressure decreases in arteries. This leads to conclude that the higher blood pressure is the systolic pressure (for example 120 mmHg), and the lower blood pressure is the diastolic pressure (for example 80 mmHg).
HFOV aims at accomplishing ultra fast tidal volume that are less than patients anatomic dead space. A mechanical diaphragm oscillates between 3-15 times a second which creates a push and pull effect on the airway from the endotracheal tube to alveoli. HFOV is useful in severe hypoxic respiratory failure and inpatient with large bronchopulmonary fistula where a tidal volume is lost through the chest tube. The advantage of HFOV is that it can increase the mean airway pressure and oxygenation without high subjecting lung tissue to distending pressures and volume. In essence, HFOV can prevent barotrauma as well as volutrauma.
2. There are three major systems available for the production of energy in the muscles: the ATP-PC system for high-intensity short bursts; the anaerobic glycolysis system for intermediate bursts of high intensity (this system is more commonly known as the Lactic Acid system) and there is the aerobic system for long efforts of low to moderate intensity. The body utilises different energy systems for different activities, depending on the duration and intensity. The lactic acid system is an anaerobic energy system that provides energy for 1-3 minutes of high intensity activity. Lactic acid kicks in when your heart rate exceeds 85% of its maximum.