Four Theories Of Leadership

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Leadership is an essential component to ensure the achievement of an organization. There are many concepts related leadership is created by the researchers to explain the leadership. However, there is no specific theories or model can perfectly describe the leadership as the concept towards leadership keep on changing over the time. Therefore, the leadership can be classified into four different approaches, which are trait approach, behaviour approach, power-influence approach and contingency approach.

2.1.1 Trait Approach
Trait approach is one of the earliest methods used to recognise the leadership. It concerned about the personal characteristics such as personality, intelligence, skills and etc. This approach proposed that the person who
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It focused on the behaviour that leader possesses in the leading process. Robbin and Coulter (2014) indicated that this behaviour approach explains the nature of leadership based on the ways leader behave to manage their responsibilities and the function as a leader. The researchers discovered that there are three styles the leaders used constantly, which are autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire style (Daft, 2011). The leaders who apply autocratic style usually centralize the authority in the organization. They make the decision unilaterally and restrict the participation of the followers. Democratic leaders delegate the authority and always encourage the followers to involve themselves in making decision. Another style is the laissez-faire which the leader typically provides liberty to the followers to make…show more content…
Yukl (2002) emphasized that this approach seeks to explain the leadership through the types of the power possessed and the ways of the power exercised by the leaders. In the organization, some of the leaders gained power through their position or job authority. But, there are also leaders who influence their followers through their personal characteristics and relationship instead of using their power. The influential leadership involved are the transformational leadership and transactional leadership.
Transformational leadership usually concerned with emotion, values, ethics and standards. As mentioned by Northouse (2010), this leadership style created a close connection between the leaders and followers. This is because transformational leaders always raise followers’ motivation, satisfy their needs and treat them as full human being. Therefore, transformational leaders can easily influence their followers in term of belief and perception. However, transactional leadership contrary to transformational leadership. Transactional leadership is dispassionate, does not excite and transform the followers. Bateman and Snell (2004) stated that transactional leaders influence their followers by using social exchange. They use their legitimate, reward and coercive power to give commands. Other than commands, transaction leaders also influence their followers
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