The convexed bulge is created by the presence of the middle ethmoidal air cells and as a result, it contains an ostium that drains this space. Located anteroinferiorly to the ethmoid bulla, and posterior to the uncinate process, is a curved furrow called the hiatus semilunaris. It contains the maxillary ostium and an accessory maxillary ostium towards the inferior aspect of the groove and the ostia of the anterior ethmoidal air cells anteriorly. This groove is continuous with the ethmoidal infundibulum, which courses superiorly and deep to the anterior aspect of the middle concha and lateral to the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone. The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum.
After the pathogen has infected, the next step is the “means of exit”. The mean of exist are different ways in which the pathogen is able to leave the recent body. The common routes in which this pathogen is allowed to leave are, ear, mouth, even nose. Also the reproductive tract plays a role when the pathogen want to leave. Open wounds are another common route in which the pathogen may exit.
Gastroenteritis:. Infection of the stomach or intestine is called gastroenteritis. Even though viruses cause gastrointestinal infection but bacteria also cause such infections by infecting the lining of the intestine or the stomach. stomach is infectad by large number of pathogenic microorganism and this infection is usually extends to the nearest structures which are the esophagus proximally and duodenum distally. Stomach infections is caused by two gerneral situations which are gastritis and gastroenteritis.
However, regardless of classification, the translocation of pathogens into the peritoneal cavity initiates a cascade of inflammatory responses (Mabewa, Seni, Chalya, Mshana, & Gilyoma, 2015). This response is co-stimulated by mesothelial cells, and characterized by an accumulation of neutrophils and pro-inflammatory cytokines (McGuire et al., 2015). In primary peritonitis the infection occurs, but the source of intra-abdominal infection is unidentified, this is known as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Secondary peritonitis arises from abdominal trauma, organ damage, occurs secondary to medical procedures, and internal leaks affecting the peritoneum. Likewise, tertiary peritonitis is defined as a recurrent or persistent infection after 48 hours of adequate medical management of secondary peritonitis (Henderson, Nguyen, Said, & Nazzal, 2017).
INTRODUCTION Fournier’s gangrene is a rare, rapidly progressive, fulminant form of necrotizing fascitis of the genital, perianal and perineal regions.1 It is characterised by progressive spread of necrosis in the skin and subcutaneous tissue combined with severe systemic infections.2 It is a polymicrobial infection and is caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria which further leads to thrombosis of subcuatneous and subcutaneous blood vessels, resulting in severe gangrene.3 Any trauma or infection in the perineal region or urinary tract forms the initial focus of disease.4 In general, the infection occurs in immunocompromised patients such as diabetic, HIV seropositive, alcoholic and elderly individuals. Patients who are undernourished and from low socioeconomic strata are
In the stages of endometriosis you can experience different types of effects and stages. The stages are referred to as Stage I to Stage IV. The reproductive system can be compromised and cause infertility. Anatomically the disruption of pelvic structures, multiple production and activation of peritoneal macrophages cause the inflammation of the lower abdominal cavity. It may bring about an ectopic pregnancy since the fallopian tube may be infected and the egg may stick to one of the cyst.
These neutrophils, upon infiltration, first attach to the endothelium followed by undergoing diapedesis and migrate towards the area of inflammation. Subsequently, neutrophils release cytokines, growth factors and proteases to amplify inflammation reactions, promote cell proliferation and degrade extracellular matrix as well as debris respectively. Second inflammatory cells that enter the injured tissues are the mature macrophages differentiated from the circulating monocytes. Among other functions, activated macrophages phagocytosed microbes, foreign materials, apoptotic neutrophils and dying tissues from the wound in preparation for repair. They also synthesize a multitude of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines to trigger inflammation responses.
These neutrophils, upon infiltration, first attach to the endothelium followed by undergoing diapedesis and migrate towards the area of inflammation. Subsequently, neutrophils release cytokines, growth factors and proteases to amplify inflammation reactions, promote cell proliferation and degrade extracellular matrix as well as debris respectively. Second inflammatory cells that enter the injured tissues are the mature macrophages differentiated from the circulating monocytes. Among other functions, activated macrophages phagocytosed microbes, foreign materials, apoptotic neutrophils and dying tissues from the wound in preparation for repair. They also synthesize a multitude of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines to trigger and sustain inflammatory responses.
INTRODUCTION Research Question To what extent is genetics responsible for causing Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Foreword Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease wherein the immune system mistakes healthy cells as intruders and attacks them. These attacks could happen in various parts of the body. It is most commonly known as the ‘great imitator ‘as its signs and symptoms imitate that of other diseases. Lupus differs from each patient and symptoms oscillate from time to time.
SectionІІ: Overview of infection prevention for general clinical practice: According to Tietjen 2008, microorganisms are the causative agents of infection. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In the context of infection prevention, bacteria can be further divided into three categories: vegetative (e.g., staphylococcus), mycobacteria (e.g., tuberculosis), and endospores (e.g., tetanus), which are the most difficult to kill. He also added that asepsis or aseptic technique is a general term used to describe the combination of efforts made to prevent entry of microorganisms into any area of the body where they are likely to cause infection. The goal of asepsis is to reduce to a safe level, or eliminate, the number of microorganisms