Without it we would be dead from the dehydration. Fracking in this case can contaminate it to where we cannot drink it and if we do it can lead to death or a trip to the hospital: Drinking water sources have been contaminated with explosive methane, as well as other dangerous substances, such as benzene and arsenic, that can cause cancer and other serious illnesses. Toxic chemicals, as well as erosion and runoff from drilling operations, have fouled
In communities within the contaminated districts, clean-up workers suffered respiratory system damage due to inhalation of oil mist which was 12 times in excess of regulatory limits. There were also increased number of reports of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and depression. Table 1: Showing Social, Cultural and Individual Impacts of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (Braund & Kruse, 2009) Conclusion The Exxon Valdez U.S. tank ship left the Alyeska Marine Terminal March 1989, carrying 1.2 million barrels crude oil to Long Beach, California. The ship aground on Bligh Reef as 8 of its 11 cargo tanks was ruptured spilling over 258,000 barrels of oil into pristine Alaskan waters. The oil spill caused monumental environmental damage to the Alaskan coastline where some species are still recovering from today.
There are about 600 different chemicals that are used in fracking fluid, where most of them are hazardous to both humans and wildlife. 150 000 litres of chemicals are used during fracking. Spills of the fracking fluid during the process can result in huge concentrations of the chemicals seeping into the ground. Even though, after the entire process is complete, most of the fluid that was used comes up to the surface, only 30%-50% of it is recovered. Sometimes instead of being taken to a water treatment facility, the fluid is disposed of by injecting it back into the ground.
Loblaw’s approach to these sustainability issue is to join the carbon disclosure project which gave Loblaw’s a score of 82% in 2015. The disclosure report indicates that Loblaw’s uses a specific climate change risk management approach where a boards of directors meet every six months or more to discus concerns. The environment polices discussed are then incorporated in Loblaw’s business. The main focus to address pollution and global warming are reducing electricity usage, fuel consumption, refrigeration leaks and reduce waste (Michaud, 2015). Now, Walmart and Metro are also involved with the carbon disclosure project.
Chris Woodford (Water Pollution: an Introduction 1) explains “Each year, the world generates perhaps 5–10 billion tons of industrial waste, much of which is pumped untreated into rivers, oceans, and other waterways.” Radioactive wastes and oil spills affect the wildlife living in these areas in great ways. In 1989, Exxon Valdez created one of the biggest oil spills in United States waters. Around 12 million gallons (44 million liters) of oil were released into the pristine wilderness, enough to fill your living room over 800 times. Around 1,000-28,000 sea
BP, with the assistance of government agencies and others, worked together to manage the spill and mitigate its impact on the environment and human health by eradicating and dispersing the oil offshore, and by executing strategies to preserve the seashore and clean up oil that came ashore. Besides, there is still 28 percent of oil in the sea (Bryant, 2011). Every disaster is followed by fatalities, however, this disaster had double or even triple number of losses than any other disasters. The Gulf oil spill not only affected sea and marine life, but also humans who were used to live on the coastline. From the sociological perspective, it was a huge social, cultural, economic and psychological threat for the communities living across the coastlines, cleanup workers, and especially children.
The environmental tragedy that occurred in the small neighborhood of Love Canal in 1978 shocked thousands over the country, affected the lives of hundreds, and became known as one of the most catastrophic environmental disasters in the world. The Love Canal originally began with the idea of being a canal that would generate energy throughout the city. Over the years, the canal gained new ownership through the Hooker Chemical Company and turned the space into a chemical dump site. The company lacked proper maintenance and dumped tons of chemicals that seeped into the new homes of civilians. Exposure of toxic chemicals caused many miscarriages and birth defects in children.
Many historians have stated that anthrax may had caused the plagues in Egypt. In addition Ancient Greece and Rome were also associated with this disease illustrated in ancient writings and have suggested to contribute to the fall of Ancient Rome. The first clinical study for anthrax was in the 1700’s by Maret in the year 1752 and Fournier in 1769 they gave the description of cutaneous anthrax. In 2001 the United States reported cases of inhalation anthrax by the powder caminated with the bacteria more than 10,000 people were considered at risk. Recently there has been a new form of anthrax according to CDC, in 2010 an outbreak of anthrax was found in the united kingdom and Germany, patients were found injected drugs like heroine, with the bacteria in it and begin to have the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax such as sores with black center.
Many policymakers are giving huge attention toward medical errors that affect patient safety improvements by redesigning the delivery of healthcare system and methods and preparing plans for any inevitable errors that might occur in future as these errors often lead to adverse healthcare events and could be considered as the leading cause death. The incidence rate of medical errors were not well known until many countries have reported in 1990s that a lot of patients have harmed and died by medical errors they faced. The most reported medication errors were: wrong dose, delayed medicine or treatment, and wrong medicine taken. (Patrick A. Palmieri, 2008). In Saudi Arabia a lot of medical errors incidences were reported which were one of the
London Fog (1952) The most dramatic and detrimental incident occurred in London Fog. A temperature inversion covered the Thames River Valley; the deadly acid aerosols were trapped in the atmosphere, more people died from this incident over 4000 people died because of the deadly temperature inversion that settled over in London. It was recorded that over 4000 people suffered from bronchitis, Pneumonia, and respiratory diseases. This incident was an alert to the British parliament, immediately the burning of soft coal was barred in London. 2.7.
The hospitals and clinics reported that over 1,000 documented cases of water contamination surround the areas of gas drilling involving sensory, respiratory, and neurological damage due to ingested contaminated water. The amount of water used in these processes and the amount of waste produced are also major issues. To start the oil fracking process, a massive amount of water is used. This means, a huge amount of water being transported to the fracking site, at significant environmental cost. It takes 1 to 8 million gallons of water to complete each fracturing job.