Fractional Distillation Lab Report

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Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, of fractions such as in separation chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize. It is a special type of distillation. Generally the component parts boil at less than 25 °C from each other under a pressure of one atmosphere. If the difference in boiling points is greater than 25 °C, a simple distillation is used.

Figure: 1 Block Diagram of System

`A detailed block diagram of the system is shown in Figure: 1 which consist of following major component:
4. PLC
5. CPU

A brief of the system component is given below,
1. Input
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It consists of ALU and Memory. It read inputs and according to program it executes

3. MOTOR : The motor which we are going to use their specification are

Parameter Rating
• Voltage : 415 V
• Current 1.12A
• KW/(HP) 0.37(0.5)
• RPM 1440
• Frequency 50Hz
• Ambient temperature 50 C

4. Programmable Logic Control (PLC) :
A digitally operated electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or processes.

 Function of PLC is to :

• Control a high voltage output with a low voltage input.

• Control the speed of motors.

• Make logical decisions and provide
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Companies that are members of standardization committees (e.g. OPC, OLE for Process control) and are thus setting the trends in matters of IT technologies generally develop these systems. As a matter of fact, they are now also penetrating the experimental physics laboratories for the controls of ancillary systems such as cooling, ventilation, power distribution, etc. SCADA systems have made substantial progress over the recent years in terms of functionality, scalability, performance and openness such that they are an alternative to in house development even for very demanding and complex control systems as those of physics experiments. Further we will discuss SCADA systems in terms of their architecture, their interface to the process hardware, the functionality and application development facilities they provide. Some attention is paid to the industrial standards to which they abide their planned evolution as well as the potential benefits of their

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