Some media conglomerates dominate the market more than others. Each media conglomerate presses upon its viewer a certain message, powered by advertisers working with these conglomerates. Is this fair? Shouldn’t audiences be given the freedom of choice to hear the good and bad about before making a decision? This essay will further elaborate on these points.
Discourse does not have a general definition , but Foucault ( as cited by Mills, 2004) have stated that the most effective ways of think of discourse is" practices that systematically creates the object which they speak" (p. 61). In other words, what we say and think are two different things. Discourse is also an idea that language is planned according to different areas of social life, and a way of talking about and understanding the world (Jorgensen & Phillips, 2002). Discourses are made up of practices, forms and objects (Mill, 2004). It depends on the understanding that there are much more meanings when people communicate than simply just transferring information (University H., 2008).
In developing their main claim, they are able to provide hypothetical situations that can be interpreted as evidence such as the “lobbyist problem” (16). In doing so, it allows the audience to further support their argument and draw in the skeptic
The theory explains “how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs” (Burgeon, Hunsaker and Dawson, 1994, cited in Udende and Azeez, 2010, p. 34). The theory holds that “people influence the effects that mass media have on them” (Anaeto et al, 2008 cited in Edegoh, Asemah and Nwammuo, 2013, p. 23). The assumption of the theory is that people are not just passive receivers of media messages; rather, they actively influence the message effects. Media audience selectively choose, attend to, perceive and retain media offerings on the basis of their needs, beliefs, etc., thus, “there are as many reasons for using the media as there are media users” (Anaeto et al, 2008, p. 71). Uses and Gratification theory has also been used in models that attempt to identify how people choose among media.
Languages play an integral role in affecting the perceptions and building blocks of reality that we exist in, and in the end show through expression the world we have perceived. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is a popularization of the principle that one’s language shapes
According to Baran (2012) mass communication can be defined as “the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences.” This essay aims to discuss the degree to which we are shaped by our interaction with the media. In order to achieve the aforementioned aim of this essay I will focus on the following: limited-effects theory, two-step flow theory, attitude change theory and agenda setting. The limited effects theory sets out that media influence is based on individual and social characteristics. An example of this is Lazarfelds two-step flow theory. Baran (2012) states that “behaviour was limited by opinion leaders – people who initially consumed media content on topics of particular interest to them, interpreted it in light of their own values and beliefs, and then passed it on to opinion followed, people like them who had less frequent contact with media.” This theory can only go so far as in this day in age there are so many different mediums used to convey media information.
Then, it will briefly discuss the reciprocal connection between propaganda and the history of international communication. Propaganda and politics are interrelated. Politics often require the use of propaganda to reinforce its legitimacy and achieve its purpose; similarly, propaganda may affect political situation by shifting public opinion. As an outline of how propaganda can be exploited as a political tool, one might consider the following scenario. When the government wants to achieve its ideal of certain policy, it might use messages that give positive light to this policy.
3. Appropriateness Cultural imperialism is represented in the perspectives of ontology (the nature of reality; what is knowable), epistemology (how knowledge is created and expanded), and axiology (the proper role of values in research and theory building). This is related to today 's media that its audience will be hearing, reading, seeing, and knowing on whatever news the media portrays that influence the lives of audience. Its general assumption is at least one change will occur in the behavior or personality of the audience based on their dependency on the media. Since cultural imperialism is mostly involved with the media, especially television (pallavidhakal, 2011), it depicts how cultural hegemony is built and reinforced in the society
According to communication studies, in order to adequately convey true messages to the world, there are a few elements that have to be examined in which are who the broadcasters are, what the content of the media interprets, through which form of channels, the viewers as well as the effects it has brought and will bring to the audiences (Shoemaker & Reese, 1996, Pg.21). However, these elements are not precise as they only focus on what is important and favourable to them, which are the audience as well as the effects it brings, and to achieve that, the application of framing and agenda setting is enforced, and this in turn creates a perception of reality to the world. Though the content of the media focuses on incidents happening in the world, they also pose the ability to select, frame and omit certain components of the full story. This manipulates the representation of reality and thus constructs a perception of reality to the audiences. For example, Televisions would deceive people visually through the use of camera angles and other means.
Basically, Grant puts it that in face of problems leaders will make a decision based on the challenge they are facing. He further asserts that situations are tame, wicked or critical and depending on the situation the social constructivist approach is enhanced. The main reason behind this is that the three situations can be linked to different forms of resource which are calculative, ideological and coercive (Grant 2005). Unlike many other researchers Grant handles a unique area where he analysis language and leadership. His, concept takes into consideration that at times the nature of certain situations determines how problems are solved.
They can also choose to demonstrate illustrations and strong examples to the audience to add emotion to the logic. These attempts will kindle more pathos. Define topoi. Topoi is the usual structure of argumentative statements, rather than the actual details of the specific argument. Give examples of general topoi.
The focus of his research and academic publishings was Media; what it can be used for, how it can be used, and effects that are a result of using media (Pelkey “Media and Ideology 1”). McLuhan theorized that the medium used to promote a message affects the way in which the message is perceived, coining the phrase “the medium is the message”. “The medium is the message because it is the medium that shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action. For the ‘message’ of any medium or technology is the change of scale or pace or pattern that it introduces into human affairs” (Pelkey “Media and Ideology 1”). If a product is advertised on the radio, the perception listeners have will be different from the perception of those who see the same product on a television advertisement.