Eric Arthur Blair or better yet known by his pseudonym, George Orwell, was a talented man. He was many things, an English novelist, essayist, and critic. What he is best known for though is his satirical fiction writings, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. Expressing his strong opinions of the political movements that were happening at the time, which included imperialism, fascism, and communism. Orwell was an intellectual, a thinking man’s thinker and ultimately considered religion as a whole quite irrational and an institution that encouraged irrational thinking, which paved the way for the coercion of the masses (Kershaw).
Thomas Hobbes He liked to study various types of government. He thought that the government of a monarchy was better than democracy because he had no doubt that they were naturally wicked and were not to be trusted to govern. He believed that it was better to have a governor like a king that would know how to act like a leader and rule a country. He said that democracy was for the selfish people who were trying to hide their bad decisions. John Locke John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, England.
Swift employed no mercy when it came to his satire reflections about his current situations. “A Modest Proposal” was no different; in it Swift used his well known method to inform his audience about the practices done by those in power. In “A Modest Proposal”, Swift attempted to criticize social norms and shake up the tyrannical English government. Dire circumstances call for dire methods to awake ones conscious. One of those methods is "Satire".
An example of such comparison would be when he states, “My fictional view of the period, my sense of its unreality had been, like any impotence, a psychological painful experience”(17). Miller clearly states that viewpoint coming from the fictional characters from The Crucible compares to his reality. The reality in which both places had to maintain a “social unity intact”, “authority of leaders had to be hardened”, and “words of skepticism had to be constricted”(17). The Crucible is a story in which it compares the two worlds such as fictional and non-fictional and makes them into one, the story is not history but instead, a moral, “political and psychological construct that floats on the fluid of emotion from both eras”(47). Miller would also use simile to compare two thing or two words, an example would be when it states, “Turning to Salem was like looking into a petri dish, an embalmed stasis with its principal moving forces caught in stillness”(28).
In a lecture about ‘The Burkean Outlook’ at Yale, Dr. Ian Shapiro states that Edmund Burke was anti-enlightenment. This lecture was based on Burkes’s book called ‘The Reflections of the French Revolution’. This text provides a deep insight into the political philosophy Burke believed in and can help us to make analysis about Burke’s point character. This outlook, as the professor describes, is based on extreme distrust of not only science, but anybody who claims to have scientific knowledge. Edmund Burke was many things, but he was not Enlightened.
“Of course democracy, so-called government of the people, is a lie; but the lie always binds the liar and limits the extent of his arbitrary power. Of course, the "sovereign people" is a clown of a sovereign, a slave with a crown and a sceptre of paper maché” (Malatesta, 1924). This statement, is one of the major criticisms of democracy made by the anarchist called Errico Malatesta, he thinks that although democracy is better than other types of regimes, it is an oligarchy in which the government of a few only benefits a privileged class. Furthermore, he rejects the parliamentary system, the way in which elections are held and how political parties are formed, as well as the recruiting, voting and application of laws, concluding that “even in the most democratic democracies it is always a small minority that governs and imposes its will and interests by force”. Following his ideas we can confirm that if the autonomy and government of the people are wanted, it must ensure that there
I. Sorel 's Radical Project Sorel was one of the most prominent figures of the French early 20th century Marxism, but he was radically opposed to the tradition of parliamentary socialism. Indeed, this disdain for parliamentarism is what he and Benjamin definitely share. In his most remarkable work, Reflections on Violence, Sorel fiercely attacks such figures as Jean Jaurès and other members of the French parliament. He views parliamentary socialism as a clear betrayal of the genuine Marxist principles, that is, of the commitment to the task of overthrowing capitalist state and economical system, instead of reforming it. Sorel 's Reflections on Violence is not a mere intellectual endeavor; rather, it is a revolutionary guideline.
The American transcendentalist philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson in his essay “Self-Reliance” (1841), argues against society by defining it to be everywhere “in conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members” (par. 6). Notwithstanding that his reasoning process may prove accurate - probably thanks to the myriad of literary strategies he manipulated- the author totally ignored some imperishable preconceptions that should have been discussed before exposing a so reckless thesis. Therefore, the essay resulted in a cauldron of sparkling yet radically wrong ideas. Preeminently, even if the transcendentalist exposes some accurate concepts upon how it may prevent man from be a “genius”, it can safely be said that society constitutes the basis for the survival of the individual and furthermore, a safe and prolific environment for the birth of the great man.
Noble lie, a concept introduced by Plato, is a fiction or untruth about a religious nature which mainly focuses on a lie told by upper class to protect or do what is best for society. This essay will discuss the concept of the noble lie from Plato/Socrates book the republic and how it is conducted merely in our everyday modern life by discussing Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky scandal and the biggest political scandal, Richard Nixon’s Watergate scandal. This essay will argue that Bill Clinton’s lie about his sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky was not noble but rather to his own personal interests and will also argue that the Watergate political scandal was a series of all illegal activities performed by Nixon’s administration. The essay will be divided into 3 sections. First section will explain how Plato and Socrates view the noble lie and how it is related to the case studies mentioned above.
(Wordsworth) These lines from ‘Tintern Abbey’, according me, summarize the very spirit of Romanticism in a nutshell. Sages who excel in theoretical knowledge are seen to be incompetent with respect to what the Nature has in offering. The latter was the only and true source of inspiration, and the poet figure who was also the “the unauthorized legislature of the world”, was considered to be divinely gifted due to his acute understanding of the natural world, much in contrast to the figure of the Enlightenment scholar, who exceled in the knowledge of books. Fortunately or unfortunately, life doesn’t work in polar extremes. Philosopher and critic Jacques Barzun argues that Romanticism basically had its roots in the Enlightenment.