Francis Fukuyama The End Of History

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13. Do you think the occurrence of the 9/11 terrorist attacks or the rise of Islamic fundamentalism weakens Francis Fukuyama’s ‘End of History’ thesis? Why or why not. Discuss. Seow Ming Liang A0094724Y Tutorial Group D8 1815 words In the summer of 1989, a few years before the end of the Cold War, American political scientist Dr Francis Fukuyama published his widely discussed essay titled the “The End of History”. The core argument of his essay was that the end of the Cold War will also mark “the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government” . Fukuyama’s essay, which was later expanded into the book titled “The End of History and the…show more content…
It is crucial to note that Iraq and Syria were both formerly governed by dictators at the turn of the new century, and hence it does not invalidate Fukuyama’s thesis that liberal democracy is the eventual endpoint as there is no regression to speak of – the path to liberal democracy is still a work in progress in these countries. In addition, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in these countries can be attributed to the failure of previous political systems in providing equitable political representation to its citizens and a desire to correct this inequity. For example, the leader of Syria, President Bashar Al-Assad is a Shia Alawite Muslim despite Syria being Sunni-majority and Shia Alawites forming only thirteen percent of the population . On the other hand, Saddam Hussein, the former President of Iraq is a Sunni Muslim despite Iraq being a Shia-majority country . Arguably, the rise of the Islamic fundamentalism in these countries represents a desire to anoint a more representative slate of political leaders, given that previously these groups have had little say in the governance given the dictatorial style of leadership. Therefore, this more representative form of governance, which emanates from an innate desire for a fairer system, is a step in the…show more content…
These critics are too hasty to judge and are likely to have not read Fukuyama’s book in its entirety. Fukuyama asserts that liberal democracy will be the final form of human government and neither claim that events will stop occurring in the future nor imply a world free of conflicts . Moreover, it is highly doubtful that the ideas espoused by these groups are representative of the larger Muslim community. Furthermore, given that the large majority of these terrorist attacks occur in predominately Muslim countries, and that the majority of the victims of such attacks are Muslims , it is likely that the perpetrators of such attacks would invoke repulsion and repudiation by the Muslim communities they seek to represent. This would further inhibit the spread and outreach of Islamic fundamentalism and lend strength to the argument that Islamic fundamentalism represent no viable threat to the liberal democratic model of human government outlined in Fukuyama’s
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