Th the saga of Spanish conquest not only reveals a story of defeat, exploitation and control it also tells a story of the “negotiation of culture,” between the Spanish and the indigenous people of Spanish America. It is a saga where the fusion of the old was brought together with the new. The friction experienced by many indigenous people, as well as Africans, refused at times to accept the ideas that the Spanish were imposing. In the end the end the strong hand of Europe was able to conquer these people, but not entirely. In on in which there remained after conquest resistance, accommodation and negotiation of cultures.
Defeat struck the Aztec Empire in 1521 when Hernan Cortes and his army invaded and conquered Tenochtitlan, bringing the end of the great civilization. Could the Aztecs have done something before, something that could have changed the way the Empire had come to an end? Geography helped in a major way, surrounding the Aztecs with protection from Mt.Popocatepetl and Mt.Iztaccihuatl . The weapons and war strategies that the Aztecs used were very well planned and could have defeated the Spanish. Even so, Montezuma, the emperor of the Aztecs, had to ruin the victory.
While the Spanish inquisition was going on back in Spain, a representative of Spain named Pizarro was taking over an entire colony. Pizarro's company of 168 won against Atahuallpa's army of 7,000 using a few advantages other than numbers. Pizarro was going to win all along, because of his Military advances, Atahuallpa’s ignorance, and his use of an ambush. There are many reasons why the Spaniards won in the battle between them and the Inca. Probably the most useful of those reasons would be their military advances.
Despite some earlier successes, the Spanish captured and executed Hidalgo, effectively making him a martyr for the movement, which only strengthened the fervor of the fight. Following the death of Father Hidalgo, Father Jose Maria Morelos takes over and becomes a leader in south. He is responsible for drafting the constitutional decree that abolished slavery and declared inde-pendence for Mexico. After years of guerilla warfare, Spanish officials capture Father Morelos during his fourth military campaign and execute him for treason. Elites, Creoles and Peninsulares realize the inevita-bility of Mexican Independence and join the movement in order to control the outcome in a benefitting way.
While on conquest, he witnessed the atrocity and brutality towards the Indians. This inhumane treatment led him to Spain to seek better treatment towards them. Las Casas sought better methods for Spanish conquest, with the support of the emperor, Charles V, he built a new colony that consisted of the Spaniards and the Indians, but his attempt failed. This failure didn’t stop Las Casas from doing religious services. In 1523, he moves to Santo Domingo where he produced his great
When the Spanish took over the Aztec capital city, Sepúlveda remarks of how the Native Americans were “oppressed and fearful at the beginning.” The Native Americans were seen as weak willed, for they barely resisted the conquest of their homes. If the Native Americans showed no incentive of retaliating and were better at manual work, it seemed natural to the Spanish that they be enslaved. The Native Americans, on the other hand, saw the Spanish in a different light as well as they watched many Spaniards become obsessed with gold. The Spanish were given Gold as gifts and went crazy just holding it and lusting for more, like savage monkeys. The Spanish, by nature, couldn’t help but become greedy monsters for gold, because in Europe riches were equivalent to power.
The rebellion began strongly, with Amaru spreading his message amongst the Indigenous people south of Cuzco, gaining support and, consequently, control over the region. Nevertheless, the failure to capture Cuzco on time, caused by the lack of rebel recruitment and the poor timing of the attack, turned the battle around, providing the Spaniard a chance to attack the rebels and capture Jose Gabriel and other leaders. The revolt continued; however, with Jose Gabriel’s younger relatives taking the role of leaders. Nevertheless, they too were captured by the Spaniard forces, with the difference that they were not war prisoners but rather victims of the Spanish authorities’ legal tactics to lawfully capture the rebel leaders without breaking the ceasefire they had declared earlier. This put an end to the rebellion but not to it did not vanish its legacy.
Certainly, Americans were being extremely greedy and wanted more and more land. Was the United States justified in going to war with Mexico? The United States was not justified in going to war with Mexico because they did not respect their laws, culture, and their beliefs. Second of all, this evidence shows that the US was not justified in going to war because it was useless to fight if the Mexicans were going to lose Texas if it was not now, it would be later on. Truly, it was very clear that the Americans won the war because Texas wanted to become part of the US, and the United States wanted to adopt Texas into their union.
Annexing Texas and declaring war caused more problems for Mexico and America. America should have left Texas to Mexico. It caused many security problems to Mexico and brought the issues of slaves. It also seems as if america was “asking” for a war. Mexico did indeed throw the first punch, but America was taunting them.
It was 1532 when Pizzaro set foot on Incan territory. The Incas declared war upon the Spanish and a battle soon commenced. But the battle was one sided, the majority of the blood shed was from the Incas and not the Conquistadors but was instead from the Incas. The battle was in no way fair as the Spanish had horses, steel, guns, books and germs on their side. Understanding why the explorers had an advantage over the explored is crucial to understanding why todays developed countries are the way they are and have an economical advantage over some countries.
The envoy that Atahualpa sent saw the Spaniards at their most disorganized. Atahualpa remained ignorant about the Spaniard’s conquest due to being illiterate. Pizarro’s organized government gave him an advantage. Pizarro’s centralized government allowed Spain to upgrade their ships and weapons. Atahualpa was an absolute monarch and his capture led to the immediate annihilation of the Incan
American troops were sent to southern Texas to only result in meeting the same set of foes. Gun shots were heard as U.S. troops and Mexican troops fought. As a result, James Polk, the president of the United States at the time, declared war on Mexico. The U.S. was not justified into going into war with Mexico because the Annexation of Texas and California was unofficial, Texas unfairly changed its borders after winning its
The Texans thoroughly routed the superior Mexican force at the Battle of San Jacinto and captured hundreds of Mexican soldiers including Santa Anna. “In exchange for his freedom, Santa Anna signed a treaty recognizing Texas’ independence” (Battle of San Jacinto, 2015). General Houston and his army were heavly inspired for victory following the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad. Santa Anna lost the Battle of San Jacinto due his previous viciousness, arrogance, and misuse of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) assets effectively. Had Santa Anna not made these mistakes, the Battle of San Jacinto would have turned out differently and Texas may have not won its independence from Mexico (Wright, n.d.).
The main man who stepped up for South America was Simon Bolivar. People said, “He is capable of making a decision and sticking to it.” Revolutions are caused by lack of freedom, lack of rights and lack of equality. Sergey Uvarov said, “Without love for the faith of its ancestors, a person, just as an individual, is bound to perish.” The Mexican revolution was fought because the people wanted to have more freedom from the Spanish. The Saint Domingue revolution was fought because the people there wanted freedom from the French.