Motivation is an important thing in our life. without motivation no one can live because it helps anyone to achieve his goals for example if a person in the school or college study to get a good mark in the exam so if his parent motivates him he will spend more hours to study to the exam and he will not only get a good mark but he will get a full mark. So motivation help everyone to study or work hard to achieve his goal. Motivation is the characteristic that helps to achieve the goals of a person and it is the energy that keep everyone going even when they fall. There are many theories for motivation there is two that is good to talk about it.
Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” viewpoint. CONTENT THEORIES 1. Abraham Maslow’s theory – Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow introduced his theory in his article “A theory of Human Motivation”, in 1943 (Maslow, 1943). According to Abraham Maslow, a person attempts to fulfill a higher need when his lower needs are satisfied. A higher level need serves as a motivation only when the lower level need is satisfied and is no longer a source of motivation.
Like in school, students study hard because they know after the semester of their hard work would be paid off. They know that they will get a high grade if they study well. Next is the drive theory of motivation, this theory stated that people are motivated to make a certain thing to lessen the worry that is caused by unmet requirements. For example, students might be motivated to study for the sake of reducing the state of innocence. Another theory of motivation is the arousal theory of the motivation, this theory talks about the people who are motivated to do things to moreover decrease or increase the levels of arousals.
Motivation can be described as a functioning development that occurs when interior compensations are earned through an interesting and challenging work, the activation of the workers to achieve the company’s business goals and the effort to create appropriate incentives for cooperation between the employees so as for them to accomplish the objectives set by the company. Τhere are factors of particular importance to the definition of motivation in the workplace which will lead to a higher performance
Many different researchers have proposed theories to try to explain human motivation. Notably Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. While one can both commend and criticise these theories, one cannot deny that they do provide a substantial explanation into human motivation.
There are numerous theories which demonstrate the relationship of motivation with the job satisfaction. (Chatzopoulou, Vlachvei, & Monovasilis, 2015). Maslow Hierarchy of need theory is one such example. Regarding to this theory, employees can be motivated by recognizing their necessities and satisfying them. In the same way Hertzberg need theory states that there are certain motivating and de-motivating factors in the organization.
According to Bartol and Martin (1998) Motivation is a most powerful weapon and positive behaviour and triggers the employee to continue work in organisation. It means, motivation is an internal drive to satisfying a need and to achieve a goal. Motivation is also a procedure that begins through a basic need or psychological need that stimulates a performance set by an objective. Contemporary theory for Motivation According to Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P (2002) Theory Author are summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, basic premise is that specific and difficult goals, with self general review, lead to valuable and higher performance.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM The study of motivation in relation to one’s level of achievement has been a topical issue in educational forums worldwide. Despite the theories, interpretations, and applications, man is still in pursuit of discovering ways of using the motivational concept to solve educational problems. Trying to define motivation is a little like trying to define psychology itself. Taking as a starting point the layman’s view of psychology as the study of ‘what makes people tick’, motivation is concerned with why people act and behave the way they do. According to Rubin and McNeil (1983), Motives are a special kind of cause which energize, direct and sustain a person’s behaviour (including hunger, thirst, sex and curiosity).
General Theories of Motivation There are five general theories that have dominated the scientific study of motivation. These are: Hull’s drive theory, Lewin’s field theory, Atkinson’s theory of achievement strivings, Rotter’s social learning theory, and attribution theory by Heider, Kelley and Weiner (Table 2.3). Although some of these broad theories no longer have great influence, they none the less laid a number of contemporary constructs which have more relevance to classroom motivation. Table 2.3 Characteristics of Theories of Motivation (Graham and Weiner, 1990, p.68) Motivation Theory Drive: Hull Field: Lewin Achievement: Atkinson Social Learning: Rotter Attribution: Heider, Kelley, Weiner 20- year time span 140-60 1940-60 1960-80 1960-90 1970-90 Homeostasis Yes Yes No No No Mathematical Model Yes Yes Yes Yes No Individual Difference Anxiety None Need achievement Locus of control None Focus and range Food and water deprivation, learning Task recall, conflict; aspiration level Task choice Expectancy in skill vs. chance situations Achievement, affect, helping Hull’s Drive Theory Clark Hull can be regarded as the first dominant motivational theorist. He formulated his general theory of motivation and related it with experimental psychology.
STRESS, SELF-DETERMINATION AND MOTIVATION TO WORK: HOW PERSONALITY TRAITS AND STRESS AFFECTS SELF-DETERMINATION AND MOTIVATION TO WORK MARIE CECILIA SANTOS ABSTRACT: Motivation is the force that naturally drives people to act. This can be motivation coming from external factors such as grades, reputation, parent’s opinions and the like. On the other hand, it can also be motivation coming from within. These may be principles, interests and values. Also, rewards and feedback play a role in an individual’s motivation.