How far do you agree that Oliver Cromwell led an evil regime but left a great ideal? For centuries there has been a debate as to whether Oliver Cromwell was a murderer and a tyrant or a conquering hero. As a very religious man who relied heavily on signs he thought were of God to take action, Cromwell’s strongest wish had always been to get to an agreement before having to resort to more ruthless means to achieve his goals. Thus, it could be argued that the demonization of Cromwell is only well-founded and deserved in the eyes of those who suffered the consequences of his acts, or lack thereof. However, his actions, for better or worse, shaped the future of the land, which no English ruler had ever achieved.
Although King Henry VIII was a devout Catholic, his thirst for power, selfish motives, and desire for independence all contributed to the separation from the Catholic Church and forming the Church of England. King Henry VIII defended the Catholic Church during the beginning of his reign. He was very religious and attended mass as often as five times a day. He was openly against heretics, so when he publicly denounced Martin Luther, an influential Protestant, he gained the Church as an ally. Henry even went to such extreme lengths such as burning non-Latin bibles and torturing non-Catholics in order to gain affluence from the Church.
Your Honor and the ladies and gentlemen of the Jury of the Court of Justice, throughout this case it has been well established that the defendant in question, Charles I, is not only guilty of exercising absolute, arbitrary power over his subjects in the United Kingdom, but also for establishing and enforcing laws that undermined the good of the people. Though the defense might argue that Charles I was a remarkable leader heavily influenced by religion, he actually ruled over England as a tyrant. Charles I thought he was superior to Parliament and his subjects, and disregarded the law with utmost disrespect. Though he believed in the Divine Right of Kings philosophy, that he was put on this earth to serve God’s will, this does not excuse Charles’ actions of imposing unjust taxes when he became in need of additional financial funds. His taxation for ship money was outrageous, and only furthered his own strength and power.
Martin believed that the long tradition of papal and ecclesiastical authority was unfounded in the Christian Scripture, and was thus immoral to exercise over the laity. It was the long standing belief in the Catholic Church that the Christian population was led by the pope, who was the direct connection between God the earthly world; this philosophy was known as the Gregorian “Two Sword Theory.” According this theory, spirituality and secular life were two edges of the same sword, a sword wielded by the pope; in this sense, the pope was not only the final say in matters of salvation, but also in matters of society and legality. Luther’s true goal was to replace this shameless and dishonest hierarchy within the Church with his “Two Kingdom Theory.” According to the turbulent monk, the Kingdom of Heaven was distinct from the secular world of earth. He believed that all men and women were called upon my God to share in the Faith and come to live in eternal glory based on his or her own personal belief. Luther aimed to separate the papacy from its former self-entitled power to grant salvation to believers based on the collective sum of their humanly deeds over the course of their lifetime.
There was a greater benefit politically if he had considered the interests of both religious parties, therefore, that was the route that Henry IV selected, rather than the one in line with his religion. Furthermore, the decision of converting religions was an act of desperation. Henry “believed that force, if not, persuasion, could secure his throne. But three and a half years of [campaigning] failed to overcome his League enemies, and by early 1593 it was clear that Henry, if he wished ever to rule a unified France, had to convert to Catholicism.” (Dickerman 1-2) To Henry, if he did not seize this throne, the Catholic League would eventually elect a Catholic ruler and most likely, result in his inevitable execution. Henceforth, his utilization of religion by converting to Catholicism brought him the trust and respect of the mass French population, fulfilling his political interests by crowning him King.
Jefferson is also once again seen as a contributor of this idea in his writing of the Declaration of Independence stating “all men are created equal.” Differences between the colonies and Europe on this idea were completely different in that the Kings and Monarchy used Christian doctorines to sustain their rule over their kingdoms. The third idea was that central government threatened polity and that a central government possessed too much power over man and many patriots rejected that notion and believed in a divided government unlike old European ways where there political theory was that god entitled political sovereignty to the Monarch’s rule.The fourth point that both deist and evangelicals believed was a cause of the revolution was the lack of virtue the English Government had shown. The colonist believed it allowed for the harassment and assault of the colonies because it opened a door for tyranny and ultimately led to deprivation of liberty. Samuel Adams made a point on virtue discussing that if Americans remained pure and divine, they could create a “Christian
More authoritarian governments, such as monarchies, have been notorious throughout history for not being particularly fond of giving people such freedom. It is no secret that Christianity was the primary religion of the time during the 16th and 17th Centuries throughout the European subcontinent. The Spanish monarchy were dead set on spreading Christianity all throughout the “New World” Columbus discovered. This was one of the primary reasons that Columbus was able to accrue enough funds to take part in such an expedition. Bartolome las Casas mentions this theory of Christianization in his
In a nutshell: The 3 R’s: Reformation, Royalty & Renaissance The first R: The Reformation The reformation of the Christian Church had a huge effect on history, causing a major schism and centuries of sectarian violence. In England and other countries many were to die for being the wrong religion. In the early 1500s in mainland Europe, a huge religious upheaval started in reaction to Roman Catholicism, the existing Christian church. Martin Luther, and many others wanted reform – hence the term Reformation. They sought a simpler kind of Christian worship, with the emphasis on the individual’s own conscience and direct relationship with God, without the intervention of the Virgin Mary and all the saints, never mind about the control of priests, cardinals and the Pope, who were seen as being too powerful, too wealthy and too corrupt.
In his medieval chronicle, Chronica Majora, Matthew Paris discusses the life and times of Frederik II. Frederik II, the Holy Roman Emperor, is often considered the first modern ruler due to some of his reforms. During his reign he continually fought with the church, particularly Pope Innocent IV. Although Frederik damaged the Church through manipulation of the papacy, particularly of Innocent IV, Matthew Paris was sympathetic to him for his academic and logical approach to tyrannical rule, while the pope was power-hungry in a less sophisticated way. The most damaging thing Frederik II did the to the church was his attempt at controlling the papacy.
Various religions have made a great turning point on European history. One of the most notable figures of European history, a German theologian and religious reformer named Martin Luther, had so much passion about his faith of God. This man leaves a mark on European history for having the courage to lead a revolution against the Catholic Church. He felt that the Catholic Church’s practices were impractical. Martin Luther made a great, positive impact as a religious leader during the Protestant Reformation by his successful achievements as a theologian, starting and spreading the Protestant Reformation to many parts in Europe, and creating his own Lutheran Church.
101) Boucher had many unpersuasive arguments. He believed the king’s power came from God. He would tell colonist they were disobedient to God, and rebelling against him. Boucher had to move back to England because of the amount of death threats he was receiving for opposing the revolution. The arguments of Paine were more appealing to eighteenth century readers who were unsure because the colonist were becoming educated.
The Act of Uniformity mandated the attendance of religion in the nation and created punishments for failure to appear loyal to the Anglican church. The move is not surprising considering the tumultuous state that England had been under from the previous rulers: Mary, Edward, and Henry VIII that all sought to create new religions. However, rather
The story beings with the religious dilemma that King James I had to face as members of the Catholic, Protestant, and Church of England clashed for the true sect of Christianity. The colonization of the Chesapeake region began when King James I pronounced the promise of great wealth and land