According to Bradley et al (2002) it is an assumption that the employees and managers share common goals, principally organizational success and that relations between them is harmonious which are perceived to further a less conflictual climate of industrial relations. There has been recent EI initiatives and, not surprisingly, have reflected a management agenda concerned primarily with employee motivation and commitment to organizational objectives (Marchington& Wilkinson). EI tends to be more management driven and designed for employee input directly at the workplace level. In contrast, EP is typically enacted through indirect participation via employee representatives, takes place higher up the organisation and is potentially input into more strategic issues within the organisation (Hyman and Mason,1995). EIP in its most limited forms could be characterized as a move away from ‘you will do this’ to ‘this is why you will do this’ (wilkinson et al
Change is inevitable and must occur. Leavitt (1965), an American scholar, first put forth the Leavitt’s Diamond concept which posits that an organizational change has four major components that are all interdependent: people, task, structure, and technology. Since organizational change is indispensable for every organization in today’s changing business environment, Leavitt’s Diamond model serves as an interactive approach to change, which is frequently used for making organizational change more effective. The people involved in an organization are the employees. Employees’ knowledge, their skill set, efficiency and their ability with production should be taken into account when using the Leavitt’s diamond framework besides noting their current job description.
Scientific Argumentation Scientific argumentation refers to a complex learning practices of the individual towards science through discourse and scientific reasoning. Obviously, arguments forwarded to the audience in mind. Hence, scientific argumentation is a social process which consist of generating and criticizing arguments (Newton, Driver, & Osborne, 1999; Nussbaum, Sinatra, & Poliquin, 2008). Engaging in argumentation, at its core, is a practice of reason giving, a curious journey to understand science through scientific reasoning and critical thinking (Kind & Osborne, 2017). Such engagements in scientific discourse make student to act like a professional scientist and develop a culture to accept or reject any claim based on the inference
2.2.5. EQUITY THEORY Equity theory suggests that employee’ perceptions of a working situation in terms of how fairly they are treated compared with others influence their levels of motivation; motivation is a consequence of perceived inequity (Adams, 1965). According to equity theory, employees make comparisons. Employees determine their own work outcomes versus the effort or inputs required to achieve the outcomes, and compare these with outcomes and efforts of other employees. If they recognize that their compensation is equal to what others receive for similar inputs, they will believe that their treatment is fair and equitable.
Henri Fayol: Principles of management Summary Henri Fayol states that the managerial function (which acts only on the personnel) and the performance of the body corporate depend on some principles. These principles are flexible and can be adapted to different circumstances and needs. Fayol divided the industrial and commercial operations in fourteen principles of management: 1. Division of work This principle induces specialization and thus promotes efficiency. “The object of division of work is to produce more and better work with the same effort.
First of all is to identify, face and propose a change which is something not found according to the plan. The team must be highly sensitive and alert enough to detect changes and next to report and analyze the changes. Alternatives or solutions for that changes have to be suggested in order to respond to the deviation of direction. A change log is maintained to record all changes made in the overall project from execution until completion. It acts like a diary and the details can help the team to trace back what had happened before.
In the modern business organization, for a corporation to be able to manage and develop human assets is always the major goal in their human resource management. Human resource management (HRM) is to deal with the relationship of the employee with the organization. Where the basic of HRM consists of recruitment, selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and labor relations (J.B Cullen & K.P Parboteeah, 2008). As the emphasizing to the globalizing world economy, building on internationally experienced management talent. As a company entering international arena, complexity comes in where mixture of workers from different nationalities, national culture and business cultures.
Why? Bacause practical work is essential for developing student’s scientific knowledge. The learning of science should involve seeing, handling and manipulating real objects and materials and that teaching science will involve acts of ‘showing’ as well as ‘telling’ (Millar, 2004). In addition, students are able to communicate among themselves with the practical activity while committing to their task with their minds as as their hands. Students will be prompted to handle the phenomena at hand on conceptual level and at the same time promote to make links between the practical and theoretical understandings.
(Batemen and Snell 2013 p,36). His intention was on how managers should accomplish their managerial duties. In the book titled ‘Principles of Management - 11th edition’ (Bateman / Snell), Henri Fayol has discussed the fourteen principles which is Division of work, Authority, Discipline, Unity of Command, Unity of Direction, Subordination, Remuneration, Centralization, Scalar Chain, Order, Equity, Stability, Initiative and Esprit de corps. These Principles are designed to improve the productivity and efficiency of a business and it is still visible and being used in today’s
Companies are also interested in enhancing employees Quality of Work Life generally tries to inbuilt in employees the feelings of autonomy, equity, pride, internal democracy, security, ownership, responsibility and also flexibility. The main aim and purpose of this study is to know employees balance their personal and professional life and to identify the health and safety determinants in working life among the working employees in an organization. For this purpose quality of work life is measured by taking into account the variables of employees such as Job requirements, Health and safety, Compensation, Work Environment, Employee career, Job satisfaction, Motivation, Job Designing and Term Effectiveness and also stress management. Lawler and Mirvis (1984) suggested that quality of working life was associated with satisfaction with working conditions wages, hours, and safe work environment. According to the Lawler and Mirvis the “basic elements of a good quality of work life” are mentioned