Free Radical Hypoxia

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Hypoxia: is the lack of adequate oxygen but hypoxic injury is due to low blood supply, which impacts the heart muscle (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 63-65 ). After the cessation of blood supply to the heart muscle, the contraction stops due to decline in mitochondrial phosphorylation. This leads to low ATP production, which causes an increase in anaerobic metabolism, producing ATP from glycogen. Even when that is used up, the sodium and potassium pump on the plasma membrane and the sodium-calcium exchange fail to function. All of this causes cellular swelling and also lead to vacuolation, formation of vacuoles.

2) Free Radicals: an injury by free radicals such as the reactive oxygen species, also known as oxidative stress (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 66). This is an uncharged atom that makes the molecule unstable. In order to become stabilized, it needs to either get an electron or give up its electron. By doing this, it forms chemical bonds with protein,
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73-77). It is higher in men more than women, especially in African American men compared to other race. There are different types of injury such as blunt force injuries, sharp force injury, asphyxia injuries, and gun shot wounds. In blunt force injury, it is a mechanical injury to the body causing crushing, tearing of tissues. Some examples of this type of injury are contusion, laceration, abrasion and fracture. In sharp force injury, the skin is either cut or pierced and some examples of this are: chopping wounds, incised wounds, stab wounds, and puncture wounds. Asphyxia injuries can happen due to suffocation, strangling (choking/hanging), drowning, and also chemical asphyxiants. There are two types of gun shot wounds: penetrating or perforating. Gunshot wounds are described by its appearance such as entrance wounds, intermediate entrance wounds, indeterminate entrance wound and exit

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