The resulting product, glycolate is then transported by specific proteins to the peroxisome. 5.1.2 Reactions of glycolate in the peroxisome Glycolate is first oxidised to a glyoxylate molecule yielding hydrogen peroxide as aby-product. Hydrogen peroxide is harmful to plant cells in the leaf including the chloroplast. A significant amount of the by-product is reduced to oxygen and water, oxygen being used for the oxidation reaction of the next glycolate. Glyoxylate then undergoes a transamination reaction carried out by glyoxylate glutamate aminotransferase.
2.1 Chemistry of Bioluminescence Bioluminescence is the production of light as a result of a chemical reaction without the use of heat within a living organism. For bioluminescence to occur usually two substances and a by-product such as oxygen are required. In the majority of bioluminescent reactions, the chemical reaction which leads to bioluminescence is the oxidation of a molecule called luciferin. Luciferin, which is the substrate in this chemical reaction, is the chemical in the reaction which produces light. The reaction rate of this reaction is controlled by an enzyme called Luciferase which acts as a biological catalyst.
Respiration is a series of biochemical pathways that take place in order to create the ATP needed for an organism to survive. ATP is created by either oxidation or reduction reactions depending on what type of respiration process is taking place. An oxidation reaction is when the biochemical pathway has to lose electrons, while in reduction reactions gain electrons to create ATP (Notes, 9/30/15). Aerobic respiration is a biochemical pathways that creates ATP through a series of oxidation reactions. In this type of process, the electron acceptor that would be used is NAD+ and the final electron acceptor has to be oxygen.
Farayha Razzaq ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN It is a series of biochemical redox reactions that influences the transfer of electrons through carriers .It uses the reduction of molecular oxygen through the movement of protons across the membrane of mitochondria and generates ATP. Main features of ETC • Four protein complexes are involved in the electron transport chain for the movement of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to molecular oxygen. • Hydrogen ion gradient is produced by protein complex-I by the pumping of four hydrogen ions across the membrane. • FADH2 is received by complex-II and gives electron to electron transport chain. • Electrons from complex-I and complex-II is received by Ubiquinone (Q) .
The first, the citric acid cycle, involves the reduction of NAD+ to NADH and the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The second, known as the electron transport chain, results in NADH being reoxidized to NAD+ , the oxidation of the intermediate succinate, and the reduction of O2 to water, following a series of oxidation-reduction reactions. During this pathway, the energy that is harnessed from the oxidation of NADH and succinate is conserved in the pyrophosphate bond of ATP instead of being lost as heat – this process is known as oxidative phosphorylation. There are five enzyme complexes involved in catalysing this process; four respiratory complexes and an ATP synthetase. The four respiratory complexes are embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, they are functionally very important to the electron transport chain and each of them have an individual role.
It is also called the transformation or functionalization phase, as it usually involves oxidation and/or reduction reactions, as well as hydrolysis reactions. Most frequent are oxidations of carbon, redox reactions involving carbonyl compounds as products or substrates (oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes, reduction of aldehydes and ketones), oxidation and/or oxygenation of nitrogen atoms, oxidations/reductions at sulfur atoms, and hydrolysis reactions of esters, lactones, amides, lactams, or peptide hydrolysis, as well as hydration of epoxides.90 These are called “activating” reactions as they may introduce reactive functions on the xenobiotic molecules that could undergo further conjugation, which is part of phase II metabolism.91,92 Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play a central role in the elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics. Phase I DMEs consist of many isoenzymes (several hundred variations have been identified), but primarily of the hemoprotein cytochrome P450 family (CYP). It is a superfamily of microsomal mixed function oxidases, abundant in liver, gastrointestinal tract, lung and kidneys.93,94 They are widely distributed across species and have an extremely broad range of substrate
Biodiversity of co2 assimilation The process of conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds by living organisms during photosynthesis is termed as co2 assimilation. Assimilation is also occurring in animals in the form of absorption of nutrients into the body after digestion in the intestine and its transformation in biological tissues. This process is occurring in entire body to help develop new cells. Biodiversity of co2 assimilation in different photosynthetic organisms is described as following. CO2 Assimilation in Photosynthetic Bacteria and Cyanobacteria: Photosynthetic Bacteria possess photosynthetic pigments other than chl.a and can synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide in presence of light like green plants but instead
Physicist detects the new subatomic particles by expressing the different properties of substance. The whole environmental science depends on chemistry. Chemistry is used for illuminating the origin and impact of phenomenon such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion and global warming1. The history of chemistry can be divided into four periods: 1. Alchemy 2.
Boyle questioned the basis of the chemical theory of his day and taught that the proper object of chemistry was to determine the composition of substances. John Mayow observed the fundamental analogy between the respiration of an animal and the burning, or oxidation, of organic matter in air. Then after sometime when Lavoisier carried out his fundamental studies on chemical oxidation, grasping the true nature of the process, he also showed, quantitatively, the similarity between chemical oxidation and the respiratory process. On the late 18th century, a biological phenomenon that occupied the attention of the chemists—PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The demonstration, through the combined work of Joseph Priestly, Jan Ingenhousz and Jean Senebier, that photosynthesis is essentially the reverse of respiration was a milestone in the development of biochemical
In electrically conducting materials, i.e. metals, the produced charge carriers are immediately recombined. In semiconductors a portion of this photo excited electron-hole pairs diffuse to the surface of the catalytic particle (electron-hole pairs are trapped at the surface) and take part in the chemical reaction with the adsorbed donor (D) or acceptor (A) molecules. The holes can oxidize donor molecules (eqn. 2.1) whereas the conduction band electrons can reduce appropriate electron acceptor molecules (eqn.