In The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant endeavors to refute Hume’s claim that all ideas have their origins in experience through his own transcendental idealism (Prolegomena, introduction, CoP pg. 819) . To do this, Kant progresses the view that it is possible to have a priori truths. To support this refutation, Kant develops a conceptual scheme that works to explain how a priori truths are synthesized in the mind, and gives an account of Kant’s “two-world view”. This view explores the relation and existence of the phenomenal world and the world of things-in-themselves.
In this analogy found repeatedly in both the Second Critique and Groundwork Kant points to both moral law and scientific law. Moral law as a law of obligation prescribes how we ought to act and is both necessary and universally valid; it commands our behavior categorically. Scientific law, on other hand, explains phenomena and is also necessary and universally valid, at least with regard to the phenomena it
Kant offers that his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals “is nothing more than the identification and corroboration of the supreme principle of morality” (4:392). He maintains that people must use “practical philosophy”, or careful reasoning, in order to delineate the precise principle of human morality, which Kant later identifies and formulates as the categorical imperative. To understand this supreme principle of morality, Kant asserts the truth in two things: there exists morality, which regulates human behaviors and signifies good actions, and that this morality can be only understood through reason. Assuming that these are both true, it is not entirely clear what the ontological relationship is between human rationality and morality—whether
According to Kant, the categorical imperative is a golden rule that states that any moral action must be a part of the universal law. In other words, Kant believes that you should do an action only if it is recognized to be good in all circumstances. Kant would believe assisted suicide is not ethical and nobody
Kant argued that it was Hume's philosophy, flinched from the "dogmatism". However, in the changed context and something unlike Hume, Kant had just sense a source of moral norms. The changed context consisted in the fact that Kant does not ask how to justify all value judgments in the same way, rather than separately dealing with the so-called morality in the narrow sense, that is, the attitudes on which it is possible to agree all and make them subject to an obligation or duty and other value judgments in which it sets the request. This difference, which extends along ethic is well understood. You can consider that a good deal of long
who concludes that ‘rational nature cannot be valuable in a Kantian world’. Actually, there are Kantians working on issues whether rationality could identify moral law. According to Hill, aside from Korsgarrd’s objection to realism, there are mainly two doubts whether Kant implies value realism. The first doubt arises from epistemological concerns. Kant states that it is possible for all of us to possess moral knowledge; given that we construct value it is clearly plausible that we can know what is valuable.
One of the objections which I consider to be of strength is one regarding the over flexibility of the sanction principle. The in-built nature of utilitarianism as a theory, fails to impose plausible corrective consequences to those actions which do not comply with the stipulated rules of the moral theory. Though the theory claims to not promote actions of self benefit, it fails to blatantly rebuke actions contravening general morality, by offering acceptance to such given that the justification provided corresponds with the guidelines of the theory. This objection is of collorally effect to a line of criticisms. Bernard Williams presents a reasonable flaw of the theory not being able to uphold justice and fairness.
Kant’s first formulation of the CI is also named universalizability, all moral maxims must be universalizable. According to Kant, it is not rational to choose a world in which you cannot will the maxim of your action to be a universal law. This is where CI (moral maxims apply to everyone, for example, if you expect other people to keep their promises, then you are obligated to keep your own promises) are different from merely hypothetical ones which command conditionally on your having a relevant desire, the example would be an ‘ought’ statement of the form, ‘if you want A, then you ought to do B’. This is a hypothetical imperative, such as ‘Jack sees a cake, Jack ought not to eat it, as it is a means to keep healthy’. Such thinking appeals to our rationality and can be found in every major world religion most typically summarized in ‘The Golden Rule’ – treat other people as you want to be treated.
Hempf orders Captain Gerd Wiesler to survey the couple, hoping to eliminate Dreyman as competition. What follows is an engaging and compelling story of morality and display of typical German stereotypes. Similarly, Goodbye Lenin is set in the DDR, in the year 1989, a few months before the collapse of the Berlin Wall and the DDR. The Stasi (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit) was the secret police and the official investigation institution of the DDR. It was founded by the SED on February 8, 1950 in order to protect and enforce the interests of the party.