The Montgomery Bus Boycott started early in December, 1955. Martin Luther was still a young minister, but his ability to organize people in peaceful protest became immediately obvious. On the same day the boycott began, King was appointed president of the Montgomery Improvement Association. The Montgomery Improvement Association was a collective group of black pastors and local leaders. Its initial theme become the bus boycott drew national attention to racial inequality.
In the early sixties Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) an organization founded in April 1960’ by Ella Baker to achieve social civil rights for blacks. In 1961, another organization launched the Freedom Rides known as Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). To test compliance some of the Freedom Riders took a bus trip to Deep South and get some violent response. The first African-American student James Meredith was entered in one of the University of Mississippi. To protect him federal marshals were sent.
The Civil Rights Act was caused by many things including the Brown v Board of Education case, Rosa Parks arrest, Little Rock school desegregation, and the march on Washington. In 1955, Rosa Parks nonviolently protested by refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger and was then arrested, this then led to bus boycotts to try to end segregation in buses. Interestingly enough, segregated buses were a violation of the 14th amendment. Another event that led up to the Civil Rights Act was the Little Rock school desegregation in 1957. A group of African-American students decided to integrate Central High School in Arkansas, they were faced with a white mob and the governor did not agree with these actions.
The last consequence that came from the Montgomery bus boycott was it Martin Luther King Jr. the the fore front of the Black Civil rights movement. King was President of the Montgomery improvement association, which was dedicated to the protest. Because of this he became the voice of the boycott and later one of the leaders of the whole Civil Rights Movement and eventually a national symbol. He was able to gain such a big role in the Civil Rights Movement because of the the overwhelming success of the Montgomery Bus Boycott highlighting the effectiveness of Martin Luther King Jr.’s Non-Violence protest
Following the Civil War (1861-1865), a trio of constitutional amendments abolished slavery, making the former slaves citizens and gave all men the right to vote regardless of race. Nonetheless, many states particularly in the South, used poll taxes, literacy tests and other similar measures to keep their Black neighbors practically broke. They also enforced strict segregation through “Jim Crow” laws and condoned violence from white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. First proposed by President John F. Kennedy, it survived strong opposition from southern members of Congress and was then signed into law by Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson.
During the mid-20th century a group of nonviolent protesters call the Freedom Riders began a nonviolent campaign against the segregation of bus facilities in the south. The social activists which were both white and black college students would peacefully ride Greyhound busses through the south as an act of civil disobedience. The most notable states would be Alabama and Mississippi where they would face violent mobs and corrupt sections of government. Unfazed by the attacks on them they would continue on and even gain support as more and more people would seek an end to segregation. As the law supports an exclusive and racist society, humans must find a way to break the negative trend.
With the help of Rabbi Dresner, Dr. King was able to speak at Jonathan Dayton High School, despite the large and open resistance from the community. The Freedom Riders were “thirteen riders boarded two buses for a journey that began in Washington D.C., and was scheduled to end in New Orleans, Louisiana” (ABC- CLIO Para. 4). The Freedom Rides were "a landmark event in the civil rights movement, the 1961 Freedom Rides were a series of organized interstate bus rides meant to directly confront discriminatory Jim Crow laws found in the southern states" (ABC-CLIO Para. 1).
Citizens that did nothing to deserve the discrimination they drew in by others were ridiculed for the color of their skin, the way they were born. “All men are created equal”, which is stated in the Declaration of Independence, must have been completely ignored in the 1960’s. On the day of February 11, 1953, Rev. T. J. Jemison addressed the Baton Rouge city council. He brought to their attention the recently increased fares on city buses and the reserving of seats for white passengers in front of the buses.
When Martin Luther protested an fought for the right of the colored people he did in a nonviolent way but the rulers did not use the same method. According to the article Selma to Montgomery March “The marchers didn’t get far before Alabama state troopers wielding whips, nightsticks and tear gas rushed the group at the Edmund Pettis Bridge and beat them back to Selma.” The ruled risk getting punished harshly but that doesn’t take away their responsibility. It is the citizens duty to create a safe and equal environment for everyone. “You are our sovereign, our Government, only so long as we consider ourselves your subjects” (pg.176). Citizens can’t be managed by the rulers in everything they do.
These individuals retaliate with spite in their hearts and only want to achieve chaos as their primary goal. Yet, this mentality of violent protesting undermines the solidary among communities and negatively impacts the righteous cause. Violent protesting demonstrates the implementation of a short-term strategy to show the accumulation of anger and frustration among communities. The 1992 Los Angeles Riots demonstrated a prime example of the release of the accumulative of anger and frustration among the African American community. According to Bert Useem, a professor of sociology at Purdue University, the acquittal of four police offers from the assault case of Rodney King triggered the response of the Los Angeles Riots (Useem, 1997, p.357).