The substitution reaction was successful but not fully effective. 19. If the data was inconclusive, then comparing various compounds and the unknown based on physical characteristics would be the first step, titrations would also be a good method. 20. To get a better yield, redoing the experiment would require careful attention in the recrystallization steps: amount of solvent used, how hot solvent is, if the mixture cools to room temperature before placing it in an ice
HAPZ administered at higher dose level has shown significant decrease in kidney weight when compared to cisplatin control group but the lower dose of HAPZ has no effect in this aspect. Serum urea In cisplatin administered group there was a remarkable significant increase (228.67%) in the serum urea level in comparison to the normal control group. The results indicated that the drug showed a dose dependent significant reduction in the serum urea level towards normal range. The higher dose of P. zeylanica reduced the concentration of urea by 68.2% when compared to cisplatin control group. Serum
However, the rate of the removal was shown to be incredibly slow (with tray B featuring the highest removal rate at a mere 1.11mg/l per day) and, in agreement with the literature (Vanitha, Nampoothiri, Menon & Sivapragasam 2013), would suggest that duckweed would not make a fitting alternative to current means of reducing nitrate pollution in terms of practicality and efficiency, though this may be negated by massive amounts of duckweed in large scale applications such as that used in the experiments carried out in the literature (Yang 2013, Skillicorn
The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure. The temperature in our experiment was not very high which didn’t result in denaturation of peroxidase. The temperature seemed to be a constant that didn’t affect the experiment. If the temperature was higher in pH 3 and low in pH 10, then it would cause pH 3 to denature even more which would make the pH 3 total about 4.0. Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate.
This method is nearly always incorrect because it is difficult to obtain a perfectly saturated solution. In most cases, the solution remains unsaturated or it does not dissolve all the way. Also, for measuring the molar mass using freezing point depression for ionic compounds, it is important to determine the concentration of the particles of the solute, as the Van Hoff factor is not one, as it is for molecular solids. According to Atkins Peter, author and chemist of the book, Physical Chemistry says, “In predicting the expected freezing point of a solution, one must consider not only the number of formula units present, but also the number of ions that result from each formula unit, in the case of ionic compounds.” Therefore, this method works, but it is approximate and it works better for low solute concentrations. The presence of solute lowers the freezing point, which in turn affects the calculations to determine the molar mass of the unknown.
One error that could have affected the percent yield is not filtering out all of the liquid from the filter paper in the funnel before setting it off to dry. This would have increased the final mass of the solid, not making it accurate. To stop this from happening again, the liquid could be drained more thoroughly until it fully stops dripping into the Erlenmeyer flask. Another error that could have affected the percent yield is the amount of trials performed. This would have made the results less accurate and made any errors change the final results even more.
Two significant facts about the mercury compound found in Thimerosal make it safer; the incredibly small concentration of mercury, and the use of the ethylmercury. Firstly, the highest concentration of thimerosal that is used in vaccine preservations is only 0.01%, meaning that only 25 micrograms of mercury are present per 0.5 mL dose.That is extremely inconsequential when compared to the real sources of mercury pollution; air and water emissions from gold-mining Chloralkali plants and the discharge of dental amalgams. This small amount of mercury is also less likely to make its way into the environment in the first place, due to the nature of vaccines as a product to not be so easily discarded in the environment, in contrast to mercury products such as batteries. Secondly, the use of methylmercury means that subsequent pollution of the environment with the drug will not lead to bioaccumulation, (the presence of large amounts of pollutants in top consumers of the food chain) in ecosystems. This is because, unlike other types of mercury compounds like methylmercury, ethylmercury can clear through the bloodstream extremely quickly, meaning that pollution of the environment with Thimerosal will not lead to negative effects on the tertiary consumers of ecosystems (such as large fish).
looking at my results from the experiment we can clearly see that this was not true, but instead the two lower temperatures of 4 and 21 degrees Celsius showed a gain in mass while both higher temperatures of 40 and 65 degrees Celsius clearly indicate the breaking down of the particles as their is a clear decline of mass. I also mentioned that the enzymes would not perform at their best due to lack of acidic conditions and I consider this prediction correct as none of the tested pieces was completely broken down, while if the egg white was being digested in the human body this process would
This is due to the steep temperature gradient between the ice water and the skin. However, the use of large barrels or tubs to submerge patients in iced water is logistically not feasible for use during en rout cooling. The solution then is to provide an alternative cooling system that is more portable and at the same time, able to deliver an acceptable or improved temperature gradient in cooling. Ideally, cooling rates of >0.080C/min is found to be more effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with heat injury
2. The Trans Fat-Free of Zero Trans Fat This means: The product has less than 0.2 grams of trans fat for every serving, and 2 grams or fewer saturated and trans fats combined. Trans fat has whammy effect on a person’s well-being. It will not only increase the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol levels, but it will also reduce the high-density lipoprotein or good cholesterol levels. Baked products and snacks are usually the hiding places for trans fats.
Creatine monohydrate 's absorption rate is poor and is only as good as the cell 's ability to absorb it. Thus, creatine transporters, such as huge amounts of sugar, and loading phases are needed. Saturating the system in creatine is thought to help with its absorption, but leads to bloating, cramping and dehydration. So ask yourself this question: Does putting more gas in your car make it go faster?
Besides the inaccuracy in determining the freezing point and problems in the enthalpy of dissolution, the largest source of error was the temperature probe. Over the course of the multiple trials, the temperature probe would read somewhat inconsistent values. Due to this uncertainty, trials were performed on pure deionized water to see how far the probe read from zero degrees Celsius. Another source of error was in the calorimeter. Using two foam cups as a calorimeter is sufficient, although far from perfect.
Sugar molecules arrange themselves into sugar crystals. Sugar can also cause freezing point depression and lowers the freezing point of water the same way salt does. It isn 't generally used on roads because it is more costly than salt. However, sugar does not hurt the environment like salt does if it gets into waterways. Sugar could potentially be a great ice
After seeing this data the two most effective look chemical at resisting energy was CaCl2 and LiCl. So we looked at the price of both of this chemical CaCl2 cost 6.55$ per 500g and LiCl cost 32.75$ per 500g because CaCl2 was substantially cheaper we decide to chose it to use in own hand warmer. We calculated that it would take 22g of CaCl2 to create a 20oC increase in temperature of 100ml of water. Some sources of error in this lab, would be heat escape from not be able to replace the lid of the calorement went adding chemical into it, inaccuracies in the balance, and not waiting of the proper time to recode the
But, in the case of speed of tarnishing between the two elements, potassium was faster than sodium. It dissolves completely in water quicker than sodium. Alkali metals tend to react violently or explosively with the water; however its reaction with methanol is gentler. The reaction of sodium or potassium with methanol caused a fizzing (gas released) until the metal