Title : Phenomenalism and Philosophy of Perception Name : Sargam Jain Roll No : 13110109 Word Count : Phenomenalism and Philosophy of Perception Phenomenalism is a philosophical theory of perception. The theory proposes that we cannot experience anything beyond the phenomena of our perceptions i.e. if we cannot have experience of an object then we are not able to describe about that anything. Phenomenalism makes a logical link between our experience and the world of physical objects. Similarly, idealism states that our knowledge of reality must be based on what we actually perceive.
According to him, through the phenomena of the skepticism, any truth can be verified by the theory of it. In the border spectrum, he believes that mind is the first reality of the human being, where all the perceptions and ideas occur. According to his viewpoint, the mind is the soul and truth are trapped in the mental existence. Furthermore, developing the idea of mind reality or as he called as the first reality. He has discussed the idea of the truth, according to his viewpoint there are two types of the truth, known as the absolute truth and formal truth.
Thesis: In his argument for sūnyatā, Nāgārjuna explores these contradictions that appear at the limits, revealing paradoxes of both expressibility and ontology. Conventional and ultimate truth Nāgārjuna 's philosophy rests on his distinction between the two levels of reality and their respective truths. These are conventional reality and ultimate reality (and correspondingly, conventional truth and ultimate truth). Conventional truth encompasses common sense, truth by consensus, and truth by virtue of linguistic convention . Ultimate truth, on the other hand, is the true nature of reality.
Inspired by this, the analytic method shall be used in this essay. Various forms like thematic and historical analysis shall be employed. With this, the first chapter shall focus on the general introduction; the second chapter shall deal with the general notion of knowledge and the different sources of knowledge proposed by philosophers in different epochs. The next chapter would be the presentation of Antonio Rosmini’s idea of being as a true source of knowledge. Finally, an evaluation of Antonio Rosmini’s idea of being as a true source of knowledge pointing out the weaknesses and strengths of his argument shall be made, and then a conclusion in the fourth
The source of knowledge comes from innate ideas and deduction, there is no posteriori knowledge. On the contrary, empiricism regards experience is the primary source of knowledge. Descartes’ universal skepticism and rationalism The key of Descartes’ epistemology is ‘universal skepticism’, unlike tradition skepticism, universal skepticism aims to find a first principle, which in Descartes’ epistemology is ‘The Cogito’. In order to look for a solid ground for knowledge, Descartes has to eliminate any unreliable knowledge, or source of knowledge, which the first will be sensory representations. In the first of the Meditations, Descartes questioned the reliability on delivery of senses: What I have so far accepted as true par excellence, I have got either from the senses or by means of the senses.
I will also raise an objection for one of these arguments, as presented in lecture. First, it is important to distinguish between the quality and the idea of the quality. Locke defines a quality to mean an attribute of an object, while the idea of a quality refers to our mental representation of this attribute. Thus, we only directly perceive our ideas of qualities rather than the qualities themselves and only indirectly perceive the actual qualities through our ideas (page 17). Locke goes as far as to differentiate between types of qualities with what he calls primary qualities and secondary qualities.
Rene Descartes aims to use rational theory to answer the question how do we know we exist and that if anything is real. He provides a model for perception and understanding in his search for knowledge. Descartes’ model of knowledge is significant in his contribution to the thinking process. Ridding himself of all prejudice and prejudgments, leading him to doubt everything previously taken to be true he begins his process of knowing based upon a scientific approach and attempted to give a rational answer to his problem. Thus, reasoning and deductive processes were employed by him to discover knowledge.
Philosophy is defined as: “the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language” Philosophy aims to find an understanding and enlightenment on certain issues. Therefore, one would expect the field of philosophy to be able to create a neutral question, using a neutral method. Descartes, for example, most famous for his quote “cogito ergo sum” (I think, therefore I am), wrote the book ‘Meditations on First Philosophy’, which aimed to find the foundation of truths for knowledge. Descartes did this through doubting all existing theories and building up knowledge from scratch. His method of gaining knowledge was simply to start from the bottom and work his way up.
Thus, Locke claimed that what people assume as truth is a primary result of experience. In more details, ideas which are responsible for comprehension and understanding of common phenomena and caused by personal experience, not by preliminary written innate principles. ‘Whatever is, is’ point of elder philosophers not valid completely further. As the way how Locke has explained the theory of universal agreement and understanding, varies from traditional thinkers, it was quite interesting for me to focus my attention on the roots of idea phenomena and its importance on thinking. So, this essay analysis copes to answer the following questions: What is the importance of ideas in human understanding and knowledge triggering, comparing with innate principles and where do they come from?