Fresh Water Lab Report

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The Fresh Water Chemistry

Introduction
FRESH WATER is defined as water having lesser concentrations of dissolved materials usually salts. A significant portion of living beings composed of water, It is a precious element for all living beings. Water is composed of one oxygen bounded covalently by two hydrogen.This makes the water molecule stable.
The positive pole and negative pole generates in the molecule because of the skewed structure form by electronegative oxygen atom.

Water molecule exhibits the property of "Universal solvent." Because of this skewed structure and hydrogen bonding. The two lone pairs of electrons in Oxygen attracts hydrogen atoms of other molecules, forming weak hydrogen bonds.
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Hardness is the hard scale forming in pipes, hot water tanks, cooking utensils, and boilers. This scale is metal-carbonate scale which reduces the capacity of pipes to transmit heat and carrying water.

Odor (MCL 3 TON)
The drinkability of fresh water is highly affected by odor. It is measured in the unit of Ton, which is the essential dilution factor before the odor becomes observing.1 Ton shows that water has polluted characteristics relatively from odor-free water.

pH;
A pH of fresh water 6.5-8.5 was set standard for environmental measurements.

Taste
Water has no taste, So it is a qualitative factor, anything causes water to be tasty is determined as a pollutant.

Total Dissolved Solids;
MCL value=500 mg L -1
The (TDS) total dissolved solids are salts and sugars present in water which might have adverse reactions on health and household appliances.

Microbiological MCLS
The MCLs for bacteria are applicable to non community and community water systems.

Maximum contaminant levels for
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As the water flows down and passes over a packing material possessing a large air-liquid inter phase, the volatile organic compounds (VOC) are transferred from the water to the air. It is effective in removing organic as well as inorganic contaminants including hydrogen sulfide.

Distillation
In this technology, water is heated until it turns to steam, which is then condensed as distilled pure water, free of most dissolved or any solid contaminants including bacteria and viruses. Because distilled water is free of all minerals, it may not be ideal for drinking.

Ion Exchange
This is a process is used commonly for water softening, by which ions that are dissolved in water are transferred to, and held by, a solid material or exchange resin.

Mechanical Filtration
This process removes dirt, sediment, and loose scale from the incoming water by sand, filter paper, or glass wool or other straining materials and suspended particles, These filters will not remove any dissolved substances.

Reverse Osmosis
This technology treats water successfully with high salt content, and dissolved minerals. It is effective with some detergent, taste, salt, color, and odor-producing chemicals and certain organic

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