Firstly we will be focusing on Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. He believes that the first stage of development plays out during the first year of life. This is based on the notion that as an infant grows, he/she will either develop a sense of mistrust or trust of individuals depending upon whether his/her needs for teething, food, comfort, and sleeping are met (Erikson, 1993: 33-41). He suggests that during this stage, an individual will not only gain a 'syntonic' or positive outcome in varying levels of 'trust' but will also obtain other essential virtues of " drive and hope " (Erikson, 1993: 33-41). However, we also have the "dystonic" outcome (mistrust), which a child can develop if the caregiver lacks the ability or resources to provide these basic needs (Erikson, 1993: 33-41).If a child develops too much ‘mistrust’ or ‘trust’ a maladaptation can occur which may lead to withdrawal or sensory distortion (Erikson, 1993:
According to his theory, each stage of psychosexual development must be met successfully for proper development; if we lack proper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we may become stuck in, or fixated on, that stage. Psychoanalysis focused on early childhood, postulating that many of the conflicts which arise in the human mind develop in the first years of a person 's life. Freud demonstrated this in his theory of psychosexuality, in which the libido (sexual energy) of the infant progressively seeks outlet through different body zones (oral, anal, phallic, and genital) during the first five to six years of life. According to (Crandell 2009) Freud proposed three key psychosexual stages of development—oral, anal, and phallic (see Figure 1) Figure 1, showing the first 3 stages of psychosexual development Sigmund Freud, few weeks before his death (1939) London Stages, development and Parent’s role Freud emphasized that a child 's first five years were the most important years to social and personality development (Newman
They also have to be compassionate with the families of the newborn babies. By providing care for newborns who may have birth defects or illness, or they may be healthy either way neonatal nurses take care of them (“Neonatal Nurses”). Also, neonatal nurses teach the families how to take care of their newborn. At first you have to become a registered nurse, and then you can specialize in neonatal (“Neonatal Nursing”). Quinn said “[Neonatal nurses] have to care about the babies and realize the families aren’t just people.” (“Neonatal Nursing”).
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
The second aspect is the cognitive development which related to Piaget’s theory. Piaget’s theory is all about the cognitive development of childhood. Piaget was interested in how the child learns things and in the way the child think, so he studied the child from infancy to the adolescence. Also, Piaget believed that all the stages are universal, and every child in the world will go through these stages. The third aspect is the social development which can be explained by Erickson's theory.
Cognitive development is the emergence of the ability to think and understand. Researchers have found that young children understand how objects work long before they have experience with the object. An inventor named Jean Piaget invented a theory called Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Piaget’s theory concluded that there are 4 stages to cognitive development that children go through from age 2 and onward. With this theory, children are expected to reach cognitive milestones.
Despite the difficulty of this reverse-engineering problem, infants successfully segment words from fluent speech from seven months of age”. This statement indicates that, an infant discover the language through sounds he heard. This sounds, as the infant grows, will develop into chunk of sounds and later on will expand into understandable words. Their development of language will
Parents play a big role in a child’s life and contribute largely to the development of the children. How so? Each parent has his or her own methodology as to how they would raise their child, this is called parenting style. A developmental psychologist Diana Baurmrind studied parenting styles during the early 1960s. The four parenting styles she developed was based on the actions and behaviors of parents and how they affect child development, paying close attention to four important areas involving a parents ' warmth or nurturance, discipline strategy, communication skills, and expectations of maturity.
Jean Piaget, a psychologist commonly known for his theory of cognitive development that observes and describes how children mentally develop through childhood. He believed that children think and organize their world meaningfully, but different from adults. Piaget’s sought out through cognitive development that children children go through four stages of mental development stages Sensorimotor Child (birth-2), Preoperational (2-7), Concrete Operational (7-11), and Formal Operational (12+). Throughout these stages outside influences force children to grow cognitively, one way being through books and illustrations. The first stage being Sensorimotor, when a baby is first born he or she is developing both physically and cognitively.
Develop mentalists use research to advance practical goals. In the field of infancy, for example researchers have developed ways of coaching parents of premature infants, in the hope of preventing destructive interaction patterns between parent and child. Some training programs have been devised to train couples in communicating and problem solving in the hope of making marriages less vulnerable to divorce. A program that teaches copying skills to residents of nursing homes has resulted in healthier, happier other adults whose success in managing daily events. FUTURE OF CHILD AND DEVELOPMENTAL