The reason these two were chosen because human relationships can determine a person’s psychological outcome. Infants that develop secure relationships, are often able to create strong relationships as they get older. Infants that have not developed secure relationships are more willing to not develop relationships, and can characteristically become antisocial. Although, some infants were not lucky enough to obtain trustworthy relationships they should still get a chance to obtain and maintain relationships later on in life. It may not be the same as others that were secure, but at least they can receive a chance of knowing what it feels like to trust someone, and being there for others besides themselves.
Id, is the ferocious drives that may approximate to the biological component. Psychosexual development is the central component of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages which are, the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital. Each stage is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive. These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido on a different area of the body, as a person grows physically, certain areas of their body becomes important as sources of potential frustration, pleasure or both. (McLeod.S, 2008) The ego attempts to intercede between the id and the phenomenon of risks posed by the id’s desire.
According to the theory of Alfred Adler on birth order, first-born child are often place in a unique and admirable position and parents are happy with the existence of first child and willing to give more attention and time. When second born child appears, first borns will no longer receiving full focus of love and care as it is spread and shared towards the new borns. Adler (1964) referred to this as being "dethroned" by the younger sibling. Characteristics of first born includes being responsible, high in self-esteem, aggressive, organised, jealous and high achieving. The concept of power are learnt through at their early young ages of life involving on the expressive of helping, leading and protecting others.
Moreover the Ego began to form in this stage. According to Freud this is the stage where weaning is the key experience in the infant's oral stage of psychosexual development. This experience helps in increasing the self-awareness and thus learns of delayed gratification, which leads to the formation of the capacities for independence (awareness of the limits of the self) and trust (behaviors leading to gratification). From the above paragraph it is clear that the role of parents in this stage is significant. Thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixation, characterized by passivity, unwariness, immaturity, unrealistic optimism, which is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation.
Firstly we will be focusing on Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. He believes that the first stage of development plays out during the first year of life. This is based on the notion that as an infant grows, he/she will either develop a sense of mistrust or trust of individuals depending upon whether his/her needs for teething, food, comfort, and sleeping are met (Erikson, 1993: 33-41). He suggests that during this stage, an individual will not only gain a 'syntonic' or positive outcome in varying levels of 'trust' but will also obtain other essential virtues of " drive and hope " (Erikson, 1993: 33-41). However, we also have the "dystonic" outcome (mistrust), which a child can develop if the caregiver lacks the ability or resources to provide these basic needs (Erikson, 1993: 33-41).If a child develops too much ‘mistrust’ or ‘trust’ a maladaptation can occur which may lead to withdrawal or sensory distortion (Erikson, 1993:
If the parents do not take their responsibilities the children fail to their live span. Freud mentioned that the first five years of life are vital to the making of adult character. The id must be well-ordered in order to fulfil social demands. The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct the need for satisfaction into socially suitable goals.Freud believed that most people would successfully meet the challenge of each stage and move to the next. He also believed that some people did not successfully meet the challenges of a stage and became fixated or obsessed with that stage and thus their development was hindered.
Adler believed that each person strives to belong and want to feel significant. Adler’s psychology places its emphasis on a person’s ability to adapt to feelings of inability and inferiority relative to others. He believed that a person will be more responsive and cooperative when he or she is positively encouraged and when shown feelings of competence and respect. In the other hand, when a person is hindered and discouraged, will display counterproductive behaviors that present competition, defeat, and retraction. Adler believed strongly that “a misbehaving child is a discouraged child,” and that children’s behavior patterns improve most significantly when they are filled with feelings of acceptance, significance, and respect.
The five stages of Freud 's psychosexual theory of development include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages. According to his theory, each stage of psychosexual development must be met successfully for proper development; if we lack proper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we may become stuck in, or fixated on, that stage. Psychoanalysis focused on early childhood, postulating that many of the conflicts which arise in the human mind develop in the first years of a person 's life. Freud demonstrated this in his theory of psychosexuality, in which the libido (sexual energy) of the infant progressively seeks
Marcia's approach relies on how much someone has experimented, whether its with sexual relationships, gender roles to form an identity. The stronger someone's identity is, the more unique they will feel and also have an idea of their strengths and weaknesses. This can affect our practice, as if we give young people the opportunities to experiment, not just with their sexualities, but with their religions, relational choices and also gender roles, then we can give them opportunities where they can make up their own identities and not be left in the unknown. If a young person is in identity diffusion, then we can give them support, such as careers advice, as they might not know what they want to do, or they might feel as if they can not go into the field that they want to. However, it is important that we know when to intervein as a young person might move identities, but then work their way towards identity achievement on their
One’s awareness of personality helps to cope and analyzing such a decision. Secondly, according to Powell, A. (2015) self-esteem plays a huge part in one’s personal development and success in life. Many people have very low self-esteem and this make them have a choice of staying in the background. The failing fear of being engage in some challenges is what ruining everything in self-esteem.