Some of the components are generalizable to other therapies, however, when we look at as a whole; they establish a specific describable model of therapy (Guthrie, 1999). PIT is a relational therapy, which focuses on the relationship between the therapist and the patient. Hobson (1985) determined six qualities of this relationship, which he thought were at the core of psychotherapy. The exploratory rationale, shared understanding, focus on here and now, focus on difficult feelings, gaining insight and change. The PIT provides exploratory rationale to the patient.
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
If the parents do not take their responsibilities the children fail to their live span. Freud mentioned that the first five years of life are vital to the making of adult character. The id must be well-ordered in order to fulfil social demands. The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct the need for satisfaction into socially suitable goals.Freud believed that most people would successfully meet the challenge of each stage and move to the next. He also believed that some people did not successfully meet the challenges of a stage and became fixated or obsessed with that stage and thus their development was hindered.
He found gender stereotyping in his research on his theory when he used play therapy, focusing on play construction. Research today still uses gender stereotyping. The writer believes that Erikson’s research was valid as many people supported it. However, there were some other studies that were done which conflicted with some of his beliefs. In one study it was found that in Erikson’s theory people in the maturity and old age stage of psychosocial development spend time recalling and examining their life, accepting or regretting past choices.
First of all, lack of empirical evidence is one of the major flaw in his psychosexual theory. The proposals of the stages were mainly based on his personal experiences, and even though his theory was focusing on childhood development, he did not really experiment on children. Secondly, cultural difference is a big consideration that he did not notice. There is no evidence to show that his theory applies to every ethnic group. Lastly, Freud’s psychosexual theory was strongly criticized by opposite gender- female.
The role of the therapist in relation to the client is also explored, and explains just how important this relationship and type of therapy is to the field. The main idea of this research piece is to analyze psychoanalysis, and the therapeutic process as a unit working in tandem with each other. Overview of Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious
He was always praised and critiqued simultaneously. His work splits psychologists in two camps: the supporters and the opponents of Sigmund Freud. With this essay, I will analyse if Sigmund Freud really is “Psychology’s man of genius”, like some commentators have referred to him as, or if this is far-fetched. To answer this question, first this essay will inform about the life and work of Sigmund Freud, including his most important theories. Next, I will assess Sigmund Freud’s impact on today 's Discipline of Psychology as well as some criticism of him as a person and his work.
As mentioned earlier if the birth order theory was to viewed as a cause and effect theory such volatile behaviour may be thought of as an effect with the cause being the removal of undivided attention an love to understand why this may become such a problem for the child could be explained by operant conditioning developed by B.F Skinner in his theory he says that In operant conditioning we learn behaviours based on rewards or consequences this could in the case of the first-born from a young age because of how the child was conditioned to enjoy the love and attention of the parents when taken away from the child he or she reacts in a corrosive manner because of the ID and its primal attributes. This same principle may also explain why only children also display similar behaviour when they are not the centre of attention it maybe because just like the first born they were conditioned to enjoy such
Firstly we will be focusing on Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. He believes that the first stage of development plays out during the first year of life. This is based on the notion that as an infant grows, he/she will either develop a sense of mistrust or trust of individuals depending upon whether his/her needs for teething, food, comfort, and sleeping are met (Erikson, 1993: 33-41). He suggests that during this stage, an individual will not only gain a 'syntonic' or positive outcome in varying levels of 'trust' but will also obtain other essential virtues of " drive and hope " (Erikson, 1993: 33-41). However, we also have the "dystonic" outcome (mistrust), which a child can develop if the caregiver lacks the ability or resources to provide these basic needs (Erikson, 1993: 33-41).If a child develops too much ‘mistrust’ or ‘trust’ a maladaptation can occur which may lead to withdrawal or sensory distortion (Erikson, 1993:
(Dewey, 2007) In contrast, there are evidence that proves Freudian slips is unavoidable and peoples will correct it if they say it or wrote it wrongly. It is clear that slips and mistake are two different things as if ones who make a mistake and instantly he/she will correct it, that will be the slips of tongue or pen but if ones kept on making the same mistakes over and over again and he/she does not know how to correct it, obviously that is a mistake made by the person. However, since Sigmund Freud’s theory been introduced there were many philosopher and researcher who disagree with his idea. Why? Modern views on Freudian