In this assignment I first went through the outline of Freud's psychosexual theory of development. Next I mainly focused on how parents manage their children’s sexual drives during these developmental period. Finally I included some of the common critiques find in Freud’s theory. Outline of Freud’s Psychological development According to Freud, Oral stage (birth to 1 year) is the stage where the sensual pleasure is attained by sucking and biting. Mouth is the center of libido.
The ego is where our conscious lies, and this is the part of our brain which deals with reality. Essentially, the ego takes into consideration what the id wants, and will act upon it in the most socially acceptable way. It is the civilized part of the consciousness, fighting to find a happy medium between the id and superego. Tyler is the high ego person , and the power can fulfill him. From one scene, he said "I'm breaking my attachment to physical power and possessions because only through destroying myself I can discover the greater power of my spirit.” Lastly, in term of superego, Freudian said we all pursue our super-ego, we know we will never get there but we try to be as similar as possible to it.
William Fairbairn is known for postulating that libido unlike what Freud said is object seeking and not pleasure seeking. He said our search for relationships is more primitive than the desire to gratify them. Fairbairn’s structural model proposes, “that the libido is not primarily aimed at pleasure, but at making relationships with others.” Fairbairn’s internal objects are formed directly from actual experiences with external objects. For Fairbairn, badness is the internalization of parents who are actually depriving or rejecting. His development theory describes how the infant works on his dependency to the mother through developmental stages.
It's a method that he hoped would help his patients, in a way, understand themselves and makes them understand how they interact and behave in the world. Freud's theory is that our actions whether it is accidental and or unpredictable, is in fact, the unconscious doing. Looking at the earlier texts of psychoanalysis, it is very much concerned by the language and meaning; it is the innermost important aspect within sociology and psychoanalysis. The human language focuses on the imperfections of human interactions and communications. These imperfections from human can be in the form of parapraxis, or better known as Freudian slips; a human action made by the unconscious, which fascinated Freud.
Puberty is described as a state of bodily changes and social changes. For instance, “breast development and menstruation in girls; voice changes in boys; increase in height, weight, and muscle mass; and sebaceous skin changes” (Mendle 2). Oftentimes it’s looked as purely physical development as opposed to both social and cognitive development. The importance of fully understanding this aspect of adolescent development is that it is “one of the most important transitions of the human life span” according to Jane Mendle’s “Beyond Pubertal Timing” article. This period of “dramatic physical and emotional changes” (Mendle 1) helps us understand why such a process is emphasized and how it “requires adequate attention to multiple domains of developmental
When comparing and contrasting the psychodynamic and behaviourist approach to psychology similarities can be noted in early learning experiences and how this effects adult personalities. The differences can be seen in their views on mental process and in testing each theory. “The psychodynamic perspective searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious process”. (Passer, 2009 p11) Whereas, “The Behaviourist perspective focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions” (Passer, 2009, p13) Sigmund Freud developed the extremely influential and controversial theory of psychoanalysis. Despite the controversy, he had a huge impact on the field of psychology
Freud, for example, asserts that the happiness a person feels “comes from the...satisfaction of needs which have been damned up to a high degree,” in other words, fulfillment of one’s base desires is the cause of individual happiness (43). This definition of happiness aligns exactly to Freud’s pleasure principle, thus informing his subsequent clarification of civilization’s effect on individual satisfaction. Foremost, Freud explains that human civilization is an institution put into place to limit the happiness of the individual by restricting one’s ability to act on their most base desires. As humans, specifically men, become frustrated by their inability to fulfill their most libidinal desires, Freud insists that they focus their attention instead on creating and cultivating a civilization. Freud insists though, that “the price we pay for our advance in civilization is a loss of happiness” in each individual, because civilization inherently inhibits the ability to fulfill the pleasure principle (Freud 131).
But why do toddlers, think and question everything? Well, becoming new to this world toddler want to soak up everything and as much as possible. That is why in this phase, toddlers are called “little sponges”. But once this is profound, they grow into “little investigators”. On this journey, children tend to learn about emotions and psychology, then can enhance their emotions and characteristics.
For example, sucking and eating. Freud believes that oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation later on in life. This type of personality tends to become smokers, nail-biters, alcohol drinkers and other bad habits if its oral needs are not met during childhood. This behaviour usually occur when the person is under stress or anxiety. The next stage is the Anal stage (18 months to three years) which main focus of the child’s pleasure in this stage beginning to experiment with eliminating and retaining feces.
Regarding sex education everyone has their one perception. But, what exactly sex education is? Sex education is the process of developing in young people’s skill so that they can have a clear idea and can make their own choice based on the knowledge they have gained about the sex. Sex education is the process of obtaining information and forming attitudes and intimacy. We live in such society where beliefs about everything have been rooted by superstitious norms and values.
What purpose do reflexes have in newborns? Reflexes are genetically carried mechanisms that allow the infants to respond to their environment before they have the opportunity to learn. 3. Rooting Reflex: This occurs when the infant’s cheek is stroked or the side of the mouth is touched. An example is when the infant turns its head in search of something to suck.