Freud’s theory breaks the psyche up into 3 elements: the id, superego, and ego. The id is said to be the most powerful part, and solely unconscious. It controls our basic drives and is demanding and has no regard for morality, rules, or order. The superego is the smallest element of the psyche and deals with ethics and provides standards for the other elements of personality to abide by. Lastly, the ego is the “middle-man” between the id and the superego, as they tend to conflict.
Erikson’s developmental stages consist of the age during the stages, and what the person goes through during that stage. Erikson puts social and cultural aspects into Freud's biological and sexual theory. Each stage has its conflict and the person must find the balance in between the two
Some motivational urges are disturbing, which would cause arousal, which in turn would distract our good night’s sleep. Thus the Superego engages in a process similar to censorship. It disguises the actual urges (which are called latent content) as symbols and motifs (manifest content). Freud believed that this symbolism was of universal nature and furthermore that he could decipher the content back into its true meaning (Freud, 2009/1914).
He describes this development in a series of five fixed psychosexual stages. In each stage, the child’s energy or libido is focused on a different parts of the body, also known as an erogenous zone. The five development stages are Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital. The first stage being the Oral stage (birth to 18 months), main focus is its gratification. For example, sucking and eating.
These values are instilled in the person primarily by parents, who teach which behaviours are appropriate or inappropriate in given situations. The superego thus represents a set of learned ideals. Freud eventually described the superego as having two components. One of which is the conscience. The Conscience is acquired through the use of punishment by the parents.
In 1923, Sigmund Freud proposed his theory that the make-up of an individual’s personality is largely governed by three fundamental components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Working through the unconscious and shaping behavior according to psychological fixations and conflicts or lack thereof, these elements evolve through five levels of psychosexual development (Freud, 1962). However, in spite of its compelling approach to the phenomenon, Freud’s structural theory of personality is riddled with limitations and as such, is subject to much criticism. The mind is layered into three states: the conscious, referring to the thoughts currently in our forefront; the preconscious, idle thoughts that can be easily accessed and brought to the conscious; and the unconscious, which houses the more instinctual drives that are repressed because it threatens the conscious’ equilibrium (Cloninger, 1996).
Freud also drove a strong movement that sex drive is the most important motivating force. “He went on to identify that at times in our lives we find different areas on our bodies pleasurable and today these are known as erogenous zones. These ideas mixed together to form Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory which is still taught in textbooks today”. This theory consisted of five different stages. The first is the oral stage, in it a newborns to eighteen month old infants find pleasure from the mouth, specifically, sucking.
INTRODUCTION. A set of assumptions or rules on which the practice of an activity is based on is called a theory. It is also a fundamental or a basis used to account for a situation. There are several theories used in counseling practice.
Introduction It is very important to study about the development of the human. Because it provides framework to think about human growth, their mental development, and the most important one, ‘their learning’. As a teacher it is very important to study about these theories. Because it have a close relationship with the development of the students and their learning behavior (Michael, 2012) .
Introduction Sigmund Freud is the great theorist of the mysteries of the human mind and a founder of the psychoanalysis theory which was formed in the 1800s, the theory is well known for accessing self-identity and the self in different ways in order to discover their different meaning, (Elliott, 2015). Buss (2008) states that Sigmund’s theory of Psychoanalysis offers a unique controversial insight into how the human mind works in a way that, this theory provided a new approach to psychotherapy, thus it means that it provided a new treatment for psychological problems that even highly qualified doctors couldn’t even cure. (Buss, 2008) According to Cloninger (2013), Erik Erikson on the other hand is the founder of the psychoanalytic-social Perspective which is mostly referred to as psychosocial development theory, Erikson became interested in child development when he met Anna Freud and he trained in psychoanalysis and with his Montessori diploma, he become one of the most influential psychologist of the 20th century.
Though, there are few similarities of Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory, the major differences of the stages and the developmental issues that are explained in both the theories. The reason for this is that each theorist believed in his own experiences and ideas for the development. The main differences are that while Freud’s theory is mainly developed on the psychosexual changes, Erickson’s theory describes the effects of social experiences on an individual during his or her lifespan (Flannagan, 1999). Freud's stages of psychosexual development consist of five stages. Freud's five stages only went to the age of eighteen, whereas Erikson believed that personality develops throughout the entire life of an individual and for this reason his eight stages go
A psychobiography is based on developmental psychology theories, where the theories are based on an individual’s “self” through the use of psychological theories and research. Psychology shares many of its domain with other branches of science, such as, anatomy, sociology, statistics, and even economy. Literature, which reveals human feelings, emotions and inner life, belongs to them as well. It is not uncommon for a writer to use psychological theories in creating one’s fictional characters.
One of the key concepts of psychoanalytic therapy is the development of psycho- sexual stages. The psycho- sexual stages contain five types of stages. One of which is the oral stage. The oral stage starts at the age of birth till the age of two. At this age, they obtain satisfaction through oral activities such as breastfeeding, which satisfies the need for pleasure and food (Magnavita, 2002).
In this article, the author comparing the counseling process and its outcome metaphorically to Freud 's psychosexual stage idea of personality progress. He focuses on similarities between the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages of both Freud 's idea and the counseling route, leading to fresh awareness into the nature of the counseling relationship. To define term of metaphora :"metaphors intend to suggest, and thus to reveal, certain images which enable us to see a likeness between initially different events"(Garcia, John L,2001). That is to explain this comparison is to prove how metaphors can be used to make uncertain experiences; and to offer an idea for refreshing the clinical perspective on the nature of the counseling relationship. Sigmund Freud, was one of the most influential people of the twentieth century ,he was the founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness and also a theory which explains human behavior.