According to him, this is what has been happening in today’s world where mental illness is being used to explain away innumerable events. He argues that the concept of mental illness has far outlived the purpose it was supposed to achieve and today has degenerated into a convenient myth. Role of Psychiatry He questions the role of Psychiatry which claims to cure ‘mental illness’ when no such thing exists in the first place. He argues that most of what they claim to be mental illnesses are actually diseases of the brain, which are largely the domain of neurology. Also, Psychiatry claims to draw parallels with physical medicine by seeking a physiochemical cause for all behavioural problems denying the role of people’s needs,
After Freud other major psychologists have contributed in this field but their development was mainly from the standpoint of opposing what Freud had preached. Times Magazine in 2001 has referred to Freud as Psychology’s most important thinker and a Newsweek article of 2006 called him history’s most debunked doctor. However Freud was a very notable psychologist and he is referred to as the father of psychoanalysis who was the first to focus on the unconscious aspect of the human mind and behavior. To Freud, most of the human ideology was encompassed by the subconscious rather than the conscious mind. Freud considered three aspects of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.
Another ideal that I liked is the concept of psychosexual stages, that are termed as development. Each stage represents a dilemma which combines the ideal biological choice against the social expectation. The main concept that I like about this personality theory is to find that we are in a constant conflict in our subconscious mind. We are always producing internal drives and controlling them through our own self control which is termed as the superego. Although there is a lot of criticism on this theory, because it uses human sexuality as the fundamental basis of psychoanalysis (Schultz & Schultz,
The superego enforces morals and social expectations, functioning as a person’s conscience and moral compass. The superego actively fights against the id, which often does not concur with society’s rules and norms. The ego operates as the balance or the compromise, partially conscious and subconscious; the ego does not know the irrational id or the righteous superego. The ego only acts logically to balance the id and the superego. On the website Simply Psychology, Sarah McLeod explains Freud’s theory of abnormal repression, an idea that over-restraining the id leads to illogical, self-destructive, callous, or antisocial behavior (McLeod).
In 1923, Sigmund Freud proposed his theory that the make-up of an individual’s personality is largely governed by three fundamental components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Working through the unconscious and shaping behavior according to psychological fixations and conflicts or lack thereof, these elements evolve through five levels of psychosexual development (Freud, 1962). However, in spite of its compelling approach to the phenomenon, Freud’s structural theory of personality is riddled with limitations and as such, is subject to much criticism. The mind is layered into three states: the conscious, referring to the thoughts currently in our forefront; the preconscious, idle thoughts that can be easily accessed and brought to the conscious; and the unconscious, which houses the more instinctual drives that are repressed because it threatens the conscious’ equilibrium (Cloninger, 1996). Freud argues that the unconscious molds the personality as it accommodates the id, the ego, and superego (Freud, 1962).
Sigmund Freud 's viewpoint on personality development differed entirely from social learning theory. He was a psychoanalyst and looked for unconscious motives, which influenced the behavior of the patients, he was treating. He focused on the subconscious much larger part of the mind, a storehouse of impulses, passions and inaccessible memories that affect our feelings and actions. In ancient Indian psychology this is known as "samskaras". It is believed that some of these samskaras are connected with previous lives experiences.
Psychoanalytic Therapy While exploring underlying causes of behavior, Sigmund Freud proposed that slips of tongue, errors and faulty memory are results of unconscious reasons. Therefore, Freudian Psychoanalytic Therapy is a psychology of the conflicting forces inherent in the dualistic nature of humanity. (James & Gilliland, 1980) Key Concepts Psychoanalytic theory embodies hypothesis and assumptions in the psychotic relationship between people and the environment. Firstly, Freud’s concept of the unconscious. According to Freud, the mind consists of the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
Since psychoanalysis explores the mind and explains its behavior, it is of prime importance; that said, it has been argued that psychoanalysis is overrated, as it is only able to explain the behavior after it has occurred and not make any helpful advance predictions. Behaviorism explains a wide range of behaviors from language usage to moral values using the principles of behavior shaping, generalization, reinforcement etc. Behaviorists were able to come up with moderately consistent predictions but absolute predictions for individuals was not possible. Cognitive psychology, on the other hand, follows a very scientific approach to explain primarily non-discernable mental processes through experiments and
Psychodynamic perspective: Freud 's theory focus on the relationship between conscious and unconscious mind. Human beings are driven by sexual and aggressive instincts, so humans not have free will. Freud said that mind is divided into three classes: id, ego and superego. The id is totally unconscious, it includes our basic instincts and biological urges such as sex and hunger. Also, it runs referring to pleasure principle aimed to satisfy our prime needs and avoid those painful things.
Not only concerns about their personal life, the confessional poetry also side with the individual against the norms of society. Many confessional poetry contains a complex tension between a neurotic individual and the high society. It seems an examination of the tortured psyche of the prototypical modern man who is neurotic and insightful. In his Creating Mental Illness, Alaan V. Horwitz argues that the current conceptions of mental illness as a disease fit only a small number of serious psychological conditions and that most conditions currently regarded as mental illness are cultural constructions, normal reactions to stressful social circumstances, or simply forms of deviant behavior. The social background should not be avoided in analyzing confessional poetry.