Two theories that will be discussed in this paper is Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development and John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. Erikson’s theory is considered psychosocial, emphasizing the importance of social and cultural factors within a lifespan, from infancy to later adulthood. Erikson’s theory is broken down into eight consecutive age-defined stages. During each stage, a person experiences a psychosocial crisis that contributes to their personality development. Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed:
Child psychology, also called child development, is the study of the psychological processes of children and especially, how they develop as young adults and how they differ from one child to the next. It basically tends to map onto children’s physical, cognitive and social/emotional development. Psychologists attempt to make sense of every aspect of child development, including how children learn, think, interact and respond emotionally to people around them and understand emotions and their developing personalities, temperaments and skills. It also includes how individual, social and cultural factors may influence their development. Child study is of comparatively recent origin. Notable psychologists namely Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein and
Sigmund Freud (1982) also known as the “Father of Psychoanalysis” claimed that the mother-child connection is an unconscious bond between the infant and the primary caregiver which becomes the dominant force for a pattern of behaviors throughout the infant’s entire lifespan. However, John Bowlby, a British psychologist, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst developed Freud’s claim further and introduced the attachment theory. According to the US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health “Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and
Erik Erikson was a fundamental person who expressed his ideas of lifespan development occurring from birth to death. Erik Erikson, the son of Karla Abrahamen and a father whose name remain unknown (Psyography: Biographies on Psychologists, n.d.) studied at various schools studying arts and language. He became the first child analysts during his attendance at Harvard Medical School. (Sharkey, 1997). Also, he was employed in various educational schools. His childhood, education experiences, and careers influenced his contributions to lifespan development. As a “neo-Freudian”, Erikson developed eight psychosocial stages of development that greatly correspond with Freud’s Psychosexual Stages (Broderick
After an examination of Erik Erikson and Daniel Levinson’s theories at first sight not much is alike, since the stages both differ, but digging deeper in Erikson's and Levinson’s theories have similar ideas in social development; after all, these two studies differ in the outcome. Erik erikson's theories have a greater underlining on child-adolescent development, he believes that early development of a child is the foundation and is the greatest impact on a person's identity and personality later on in life. Erikson presents the stages from childhood to adulthood, but in his theory the only significant development is during childhood, which is the problem, since an individual goes through life experiences throughout life they may have a great impact as an adult too. On the other hand Daniel Levinson’s theory signifies changes throughout all of life's experiences, from childhood to adulthood and continuing. Levinson’s theory believes that we adapt ad we let go of certain things as we move on in life and move from one stage to another.
The nature- nurture debate was a debate that was argued a while back. It is an argument till this day in trying to decide which theory in the right theory. The nature- nurture debate is basically a debate about how a human being turns out to be in their life and what determines that. The nature- nurture debate is how both influence a human beings performance. Some argue that people were born to be the way they are on the other hand the other theory is that people turn out the way they are depending on their surrounding and their lifestyle. Nature is when it is genetic and biological influences, Nurture is when it is social, economic and environmental influences. Underneath are five different opinions from 5 different people on the nature nurture debate and which side they agree with.
There were many theories that were developed regarding development so we as individuals can each understand what each theorist concluded from their opinions. Freud theory was created in 1917 and he initiated that human development was based on five stages oral, anal, phallic latency and genital. In the oral stage of this theory he suggested that infants are infatuated with their mouths because this were they get constant pleasure. In the anal stage children are paying more attention to their anus because this is where they distinguished the signals of what their body is projecting to them. Prevailing to Freud 3rd stage of development he stated that children focuses more on what their
The case, which we will be analyzing through 2 theories of development, is the case of a girl named Ashlee Martinson. She was teenage girl who used to writing blogs and poems related to torturing and killing people. On March 7, 2015 Ashlee Martinson’s parents were found dead at their home.
Sigmund Freud was the first who use the term psychoanalysis in 1896. From that point his theories blossomed. Freud did not invent the terms unconscious, conscious or conscience. However he was successful in making them popular. Freud attained this through his theory of psychological reality, id, ego, and superego. Freud also drove a strong movement that sex drive is the most important motivating force. “He went on to identify that at times in our lives we find different areas on our bodies pleasurable and today these are known as erogenous zones. These ideas mixed together to form Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory which is still taught in textbooks today”. This theory consisted of five different stages. The first is the oral stage, in it a newborns to eighteen month old infants find pleasure from the mouth, specifically, sucking. The second stage is the anal stage. It occurs at the age of eighteen months to three years. Freud believed that in this stage children receive pleasure from holding and letting go of their bowel movements. Third is the phallic stage. It starts at age three and end around age seven. In this stage children find pleasure through the ways of touching. Forth is the latent stage. It occurs in children ages seven to adolescence. It suggested that children at this age get their pleasure in order to learn and grow. Fifth and last is the genital stage which begins at adolescence involves finding pleasure in
Throughout the year we have learned about many different theorists who have done a great but also horrible job at explaining adolescent/ young adult development. In this paper I will be talking about Freud and Piaget, and how I think that Piaget was the better theorist than Freud when it comes to talking about development. I will also be talking about the similarities and difference between the two. For starters, what are their specific steps of development?
Biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes are all connected in the developmental task of a baby smiling at his or her mother’s touch. Biological processes produce changes in an individual’s physical nature. Cognitive processes bring changes to the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language. Socioemotional processes include changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions and changes in personality. For the baby, the biological process has to do with the physical touch by the mother and the baby’s response to this touch. The cognitive process deals with the fact that the mother is intentionally touching the baby, something that the baby is beginning to understand. The socioemotional process for
Psychoanalysis was first introduced by Sigmund Freud and is now known as classical psychoanalysis. The theory, as defined by Sigmund Freud, is the dynamic between underlying forces that determine behavior and personality. He stressed the importance of human sexuality, childhood experiences, and the unconscious processes. However, his theory was seen as misogynistic and narrow focused. Consequently, classical psychoanalysis was criticized and rejected by many scholars. Nonetheless, it had a significant impact on new theories that were later developed. In the mid to late 1900’s, a second wave of psychoanalytic theories were introduced. These new theories branched from Freud’s original idea that an individual’s behavior and personality are largely shaped by underlying unconscious forces, however, the second wave was modified to be more sophisticated and dynamic. The wide majority of Freud’s followers had no problem accepting the idea that conflicts during infancy affect the experiences of an adult, thus, affecting their future personality features. However, the second wave of psychoanalysis emphasizes interpersonal relationships rather than sexual feelings, accepts the study of the conscious mind, and contains a wider variety of explanations. Moreover, the new wave provided the means to advance and expand the psychoanalytic knowledge in the fields of social sciences, history, and humanities. For example, new wave psychoanalysts emphasized the necessity of modifying social
Psychologist Erik Erikson has a theory that assumes that there are eight psychosocial stages of development throughout a person's lifetime. At each stage, a pivotal personal crisis (psycho) resulting in social amelioration (social) should occur for the person to have a healthy sense of self. Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night highlights the dysfunctional Tyrone family, all of which have a difficult time identifying their personal crises while navigating societal pressures. Therefore, according to Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, each member of the Tyrone family is tragically stuck in their own dilatory stages of social self-realization.
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is very important. There are some reasons of it. The first reason is because learning is existencial issue for an individual. Human beings are leaning to learn since the day of creation. Many tryings have been tried to learn learning. There are also some other theories of learning but Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development is marvelous. It has eight stages and each stage has its own period and importance.
A set of assumptions or rules on which the practice of an activity is based on is called a theory. It is also a fundamental or a basis used to account for a situation. There are several theories used in counseling practice. However, in this essay, I will only deal with the three prominent theories, which are, Psychoanalytic theory, Behavioral theory and Humanistic theory.